0
Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Analytical Evaluation of Head and Flow Rate Off-Design Characteristics for Pump as Turbine Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Ombeni John Mdee

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Dar es Salaam,
P.O. Box 35131,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
e-mail: ombenijohn@gmail.com

Cuthbert Z. Kimambo

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Dar es Salaam,
P.O. Box 35131,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
e-mail: kimambo@udsm.ac.tz

Torbjorn K. Nielsen

Department of Energy and Process Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and
Technology,
Trondheim NO-7491, Norway
e-mail: torbjorn.nielsen@ntnu.no

Joseph Kihedu

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Dar es Salaam,
P.O. Box 35131,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
e-mail: kihedu@udsm.ac.tz

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 4, 2017; final manuscript received September 22, 2018; published online November 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Praveen Ramaprabhu.

J. Fluids Eng 141(5), 051203 (Nov 13, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1636; doi: 10.1115/1.4041561 History: Received October 04, 2017; Revised September 22, 2018

Head and flow rate are the important parameters for proper selection of centrifugal pump. However, the reversed operation of centrifugal pump leads to the off-design characteristic of head and flow rate. This paper presents an analytical model developed by using the system curves and velocity relations derived from pump application. Also, the differential technique is applied to the analytical model to develop the off-design characteristics of head ratio and flow rate ratio relations. The off-design characteristic relations were compared with literature and available conversion methods. Then, the analytical model coefficient (AMC) with the range between −4 and +4 was developed from the off-design characteristics of head ratio and flow rate ratio relations. The AMC value was equal to 1 when the pump operates in turbine mode and pump mode at the pump best efficiency point (BEP) and extended to either side up to ±4 when tested with literature data. Therefore, the analytical model consists of the off-design head and flow rate characteristics, when simplified leading to the AMC that could be applied to select the possible boundary limits of head and flow rate for different pumps.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Barbarelli, S. , Amelio, M. , and Florio, G. , 2016, “ Predictive Model Estimating the Performances of Centrifugal Pumps Used as Turbines,” Energy., 107, pp. 103–121. [CrossRef]
Muttalli, R. S. , Agrawal, S. , and Warudkar, H. , 2014, “ CFD Simulation of Centrifugal Pump Impeller Using ANSYS-CFX,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol., 3(8), pp. 15553–15561. [CrossRef]
Patel, J. B. , Mevada, R. N. , Sardana, D. , and Rajput, V. P. , 2015, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Centrifugal Pump Performance in Reverse Mode,” Int. J. Adv. Technol. Eng. Sci., 3(1), pp. 1066–1072.
Mao, X. , Dal Monte, A. , Benini, E. , and Zheng, Y. , 2017, “ Numerical Study on the Internal Flow Field of a Reversible Turbine During Continuous Guide Vane Closing,” Energies, 10(7), pp. 1–22. [CrossRef]
Liu, L. , Zhu, B. , Bai, L. , Liu, X. , and Zhao, Y. , 2017, “ Parametric Design of an Ultrahigh-Head Pump-Turbine Runner Based on Multiobjective Optimization,” Energies, 10(8), pp. 1–16.
Jawahar, C. P. , and Michael, P. A. , 2017, “ A Review on Turbines for Micro Hydro Power Plant,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 72, pp. 882–887. [CrossRef]
Derakhshan, S. , and Kasaeian, N. , 2014, “ Optimization, Numerical, and Experimental Study of a Propeller Pump as Turbine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(1), p. 012005.
Pallabazzer, R. , and Sebbit, A. , 2001, “ A Micro-Hydro Pilot Plant for Mechanical Pumping,” Hydropower in the New Millennium, B. Honningsvag , G. H. Midttomme , K. Repp , K. Vaskinn , and T. Westeren , eds., Swets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, The Netherlands.
Arriaga, M. , 2010, “ Pump as Turbine—A Pico Hydro Alternative in Lao People's,” Renewable Energy, 35(5), pp. 1109–1115. [CrossRef]
Chuenchooklin, S. , 2006, “ Development of Pico Hydropower Plant for Farming Village in Upstream Watershed Thailand,” Prosperity and Poverty in a Globalised World-Challenges for Agricultural Research (TROPENTAG), Bonn, Germany, Oct. 11–13, pp. 1–4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237295082_Development_of_Pico-hydropower_Plant_for_Farming_Village_in_Upstream_Watershed_Thailand
Williams, A. A. , Smith, N. A. , Bird, C. , and Howard, M. , 1998, “ Pumps as Turbines and Induction Motors as Generators for Energy Recovery in Water Supply Systems,” Water Environ. J., 12(3), pp. 175–178. [CrossRef]
Brazil , 2012, “ Hydropower From Pumps-as-Turbines,” World Pumps, 2012(1), pp. 14–15.
Singh, P. , 2005, “ Optimization of Internal Hydraulics and of System Design for Pumps as Turbines With Field Implementation and Evaluation,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Singh, P. , Rao, A. , Ramasubramaniam, V. , and Kumar, A. , 2006, “ Performance Evaluation of the Pump as Turbine Based Micro-Hydro Project in Kinko Village, Tanzania,” Himalaya Small Hydropower Summit (HSHS), Dehradun, India, Oct. 12–13, pp. 156–162.
Maher, P. , Smith, N. P. , and Williams, A. A. , 2003, “ Assessment of Pico Hydro as an Option for Off-Grid Electrification in Kenya,” Renewable Energy, 28(9), pp. 1357–1369. [CrossRef]
Barbarelli, S. , Amelio, M. , and Florio, G. , 2017, “ Experimental Activity at Test Rig Validating Correlations to Select Pumps Running as Turbines in Microhydro Plants,” Energy Convers. Manage., 149(1), pp. 781–797. [CrossRef]
Hossain, I. M. , Ferdous, S. M. , Salehin, S. , Saleque, A. M. , and Jamal, T. , 2014, “ Pump-as-Turbine (PAT) for Small Scale Power Generation: A Comparative Analysis,” Third International Conference on Developments in Renewable Energy Technology (ICDRET), Dhaka, Bangladesh, May 29–31, pp. 1–5.
Carravetta, A. , Giudice, G. , Fecarotta, O. , and Ramos, H. M. , 2013, “ Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness,” Water, 5(3), pp. 1211–1225. [CrossRef]
Derakhshan, S. , and Nourbakhsh, A. , 2008, “ Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Centrifugal Pumps in Reverse Operation,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(8), pp. 1620–1627. [CrossRef]
Williams, A. A. , 1996, “ Pumps as Turbines for Low Cost Micro Hydro Power,” Renewable Energy, 9(1–4), pp. 1227–1234. [CrossRef]
Qian, Z. , Wang, F. , Guo, Z. , and Lu, J. , 2016, “ Performance Evaluation of an Axial-Flow Pump With Adjustable Guide Vanes in Turbine Mode,” Renewable Energy, 99, pp. 1146–1152. [CrossRef]
Tan, X. , and Engeda, A. , 2016, “ Performance of Centrifugal Pumps Running in Reverse as Turbine—Part II: Systematic Specific Speed and Specific Diameter Based Performance Prediction,” Renewable Energy, 99, pp. 188–197. [CrossRef]
Couzinet, A. , Gros, L. , and Pierrat, D. , 2013, “ Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps Working in Direct or Reverse Mode: Focus on the Unsteady Radial Thrust,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 2013, p. 279049.
Derakhshan, S. , and Nourbakhsh, A. , 2008, “ Experimental Study of Characteristic Curves of Centrifugal Pumps Working as Turbines in Different Specific Speeds,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(3), pp. 800–807. [CrossRef]
Fernández, J. , Blanco, E. , Parrondo, J. , Stickland, M. T. , and Scanlon, T. J. , 2004, “ Performance of a Centrifugal Pump Running in Inverse Mode,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A, 218(4), pp. 265–271. [CrossRef]
Derakhshan, S. , Mohammadi, B. , and Nourbakhsh, A. , 2009, “ Efficiency Improvement of Centrifugal Reverse Pumps,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 131(2), p. 021103.
Yang, S. S. , Liu, H. L. , Kong, F. Y. , Dai, C. , and Dong, L. , 2013, “ Experimental, Numerical, and Theoretical Research on Impeller Diameter Influencing Centrifugal Pump-as-Turbine,” ASCE J. Energy Eng., 139(4), pp. 299–307. [CrossRef]
Yang, S. S. , Liu, H. L. , Kong, F. Y. , Xia, B. , and Tan, L. W. , 2014, “ Effects of the Radial Gap Between Impeller Tips and Volute Tongue Influencing the Performance and Pressure Pulsations of Pump as Turbine,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(5), p. 054501.
Yang, S. S. , Kong, F. Y. , Qu, X. Y. , and Jiang, X. M. , 2013, “ Influence of Blade Number on the Performance and Pressure Pulsations in a Pump Used as a Turbine,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 134(12), p. 124503.
Frosina, E. , Buono, D. , and Senatore, A. , 2017, “ A Performance Prediction Method for Pumps as Turbines (PAT) Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling Approach,” Energies, 103(1), pp. 1–19.
Buono, D. , Frosina, E. , Mazzone, A. , Cesaro, U. , and Senatore, A. , 2015, “ Study of a Pump as Turbine for a Hydraulic Urban Network Using a Tridimensional CFD Modeling Methodology,” Energy Procedia, 82, pp. 201–208.
Su, X. , Huang, S. , Zhang, X. , and Yang, S. , 2016, “ Numerical Research on Unsteady Flow Rate Characteristics of Pump as Turbine,” Renewable Energy, 94, pp. 488–495. [CrossRef]
Mann, M. , 2005, “How to Use System-Head Curves,” Peerless Pump Company, Technical Information, Bulletin Number Seven, Indianapolis, IN, accessed Oct. 17, 2018, https://www.peerlesspump.com/documents/tibs/TIB-7_How-to-use-head-curves.pdf
Budris, A. R. , 2010, “ Optimizing Efficiency When Pumps Are Operated as Both Pumps and Power Recovery Turbines,” Industrial WaterWorld, Tulsa, OK, accessed Oct. 17, 2018, https://www.waterworld.com/articles/2010/10/optimizing-efficiency-when-pumps-are-operated-as-both-pumps-and-power-recovery-turbines.html
Williams, A. A. , 1994, “ The Turbine Performance of Centrifugal Pumps: A Comparison of Prediction Methods,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A, 208(1), pp. 59–66. [CrossRef]
Ramos, H. M. , and Borga, A. , 2000, “ Pumps Yielding Power,” Int. Water Power Dam. Constr., 10(4), pp. 197–217. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267400077_Pumps_yielding_power

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The head ratio and flow rate ratio versus specific speed when pump operated in turbine mode and pump mode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of system and performance curves for pump operated in turbine mode and pump mode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of head versus flow rate showing the prediction error with the ellipse and circle shapes for pump operated in turbine mode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Water energy conversion diagram from the forebay to tailrace

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Analytical model coefficients with the positive and negative signs in the analytical model relation versus pump specific speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Analytical model relation compared with conversion methods related to flow rate ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Analytical relation compared with conversion methods related to head ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of conversion methods and analytical model relation to the symmetrical line, h = q

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation of conversion methods in terms of flow rate ratio versus pump efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of conversion methods in terms of head ratio versus pump efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of analytical head ratio and flow rate ratio relations versus the global pump efficiency

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In