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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Single Orifice Diesel Injector Flow Characterization and the Impact of Needle Lift Using Large Eddy Simulation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamed Chouak

Thermofluids for Transportation
Laboratory (TFT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: mohamed.chouak.1@ens.etsmtl.ca

Louis Dufresne

Thermofluids for Transportation
Laboratory (TFT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: louis.dufresne@etsmtl.ca

Patrice Seers

Thermofluids for Transportation
Laboratory (TFT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: Patrice.seers@etsmtl.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 13, 2018; final manuscript received September 27, 2018; published online November 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ning Zhang.

J. Fluids Eng 141(5), 051105 (Nov 16, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1099; doi: 10.1115/1.4041642 History: Received February 13, 2018; Revised September 27, 2018

The flow in the injector's sac volume has been reported to influence diesel-injector nozzle flow, but few studies have characterized sac volume. Our study modeled flow in the sac volume using a large Eddy simulation (LES) approach to gain better insight into the complexity of the flow dynamics. It focused on the effect of fixed needle lifts on sac-volume internal flow of a single-hole injector with emphasis on large-scale unsteadiness; three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to analyze the flow. The near-wall turbulence resolution of the elaborated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been validated with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results in the canonical case of fully developed channel flow. The main findings are: (1) an enlarging flow jet entering the sac volume with decreasing small scales of turbulence was observed as needle lift increased. (2) three-dimensional POD revealed that the mean flow energy was nearly constant at low needle lifts (6%, 8%, and 10%) and decreased twofold at the higher needle lift of 31%. (3) The analysis of fluctuating modes revealed that flow restructuring occurred with increasing needle lift as three different energy distributions were observed with the lowest (6%), intermediary (8%, 10%, and 16%), and highest needle lifts (31%). (4) Finally, the analysis of the POD-reduced-order model has shown that the lowest frequency of mode 1, which carries the highest fluctuating energy, is responsible for the oscillation of the main rotating structure within the sac volume that causes fuel-jet enlarging/narrowing with time. This oscillation of the main structure was found to decrease with increased needle lift.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

CFD domain, sac mesh, and boundary conditions: (a) CFD domain, (b) symmetry plane mesh, and (c) close-up view on sac volume mesh

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Fig. 2

Comparison of mean pressure fields at 10% of lift: (a) LES results without nozzle and (b) URANS results with nozzle

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Fig. 3

Instantaneous LES velocity magnitude field at the symmetry plane for different partial needle lifts, field normalized by the jet velocity at 6% (Vjet@6%)

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Fig. 4

Instantaneous streamlines of the velocity fields presented in Fig. 3

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Fig. 5

Relative energy contribution of the first six modes as a function of normalized needle lift

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Fig. 6

Effect of needle lift on the relative fluctuating kinetic energy of POD modes 1, 1–5, and 1–199

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Fig. 7

Energy content of POD modes 1–199 with respect to the total energy associated with modes 1–199: (a) relative energy and (b) cumulative energy

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Fig. 8

Three-dimensional CS of the POD mode k=0 represented with iso-surfaces of Φu¯0=0.2 for 6%, 8%, 10%, 16%, and 31% fixed lifts

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Fig. 9

Three-dimensional CS of the POD mode k=1 represented with iso-surfaces of Φu¯1=0.2 for 6%, 8%, 10%, 16%, and 31% fixed lifts: (left column) YZ plane view; (right column) XY plane view

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Fig. 10

Three-dimensional CS of the POD mode k=2 (left) and 3 (right) for a needle lift of 6%: (a) YZ plane view and (b) XY plane view

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Fig. 11

Streamlines of CS of the reduced-order model (0 + 1) at a needle lift of 6% at the 40 deg plan

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Fig. 12

Computational grid and boundary conditions of the channel flow model on isometric (top) and xy plan (bottom) views. The pairs (A1,A2) and (B1,B2) refer to periodic interfaces.

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Fig. 13

Validation tests on numerical schemes against DNS results [32], LES DSMG [44], and LES WALE results [31] of the mean velocity profile U+=f(y+) (in wall units)

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Fig. 14

Validation tests on SGS models against DNS results [32], LES DSMG from Ref. [44] and LES WALE [31] of the mean velocity profile U+=f(y+) (in wall units)

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the normalized fluctuations u′,v′,w′ and normalized <u′v′> of the model used herein against DNS results [32] and WALE results [42]. The operator <·> denotes temporal averaging.

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Fig. 16

Energy spectrum of velocity fluctuations in the sac volume at high lift of 31% as function of the wavenumber (spectrum averaged over 24 windows). Interfaces of the inertial zone (slope ≈−5/3) are delimited by κEI and κDI.

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