Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Single Orifice Diesel Injector Flow Characterization and the Impact of Needle Lift Using Large Eddy Simulation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamed Chouak

Thermofluids for Transportation
Laboratory (TFT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: mohamed.chouak.1@ens.etsmtl.ca

Louis Dufresne

Thermofluids for Transportation
Laboratory (TFT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: louis.dufresne@etsmtl.ca

Patrice Seers

Thermofluids for Transportation
Laboratory (TFT),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École de Technologie Supérieure,
Montréal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada
e-mail: Patrice.seers@etsmtl.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 13, 2018; final manuscript received September 27, 2018; published online November 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ning Zhang.

J. Fluids Eng 141(5), 051105 (Nov 16, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1099; doi: 10.1115/1.4041642 History: Received February 13, 2018; Revised September 27, 2018

The flow in the injector's sac volume has been reported to influence diesel-injector nozzle flow, but few studies have characterized sac volume. Our study modeled flow in the sac volume using a large Eddy simulation (LES) approach to gain better insight into the complexity of the flow dynamics. It focused on the effect of fixed needle lifts on sac-volume internal flow of a single-hole injector with emphasis on large-scale unsteadiness; three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to analyze the flow. The near-wall turbulence resolution of the elaborated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been validated with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results in the canonical case of fully developed channel flow. The main findings are: (1) an enlarging flow jet entering the sac volume with decreasing small scales of turbulence was observed as needle lift increased. (2) three-dimensional POD revealed that the mean flow energy was nearly constant at low needle lifts (6%, 8%, and 10%) and decreased twofold at the higher needle lift of 31%. (3) The analysis of fluctuating modes revealed that flow restructuring occurred with increasing needle lift as three different energy distributions were observed with the lowest (6%), intermediary (8%, 10%, and 16%), and highest needle lifts (31%). (4) Finally, the analysis of the POD-reduced-order model has shown that the lowest frequency of mode 1, which carries the highest fluctuating energy, is responsible for the oscillation of the main rotating structure within the sac volume that causes fuel-jet enlarging/narrowing with time. This oscillation of the main structure was found to decrease with increased needle lift.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ning, W. , R. D., Reitz , R., Diwakar ., and A. M., Lippert , 2008, “ A Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Geometry and Injection Condition Effects on Diesel Fuel Injector Flow Physics,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-0936.
Payri, R. , Margot, X. , and Salvador, F. J. , 2002, “ A Numerical Study of the Influence of Diesel Nozzle Geometry on the Inner Cavitating Flow,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-0215.
Payri, R. , Molina, S. , Salvador, F. J. , and Gimeno, J. , 2004, “ A Study of the Relation Between Nozzle Geometry, Internal Flow and Sprays Characteristics in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 18(7), pp. 1222–1235.
Battistoni, M. , Carlo ., and Nazareno, G. , 2010, “ Analysis of Transient Cavitating Flows in Diesel Injectors Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 3(2), pp. 879–900. [CrossRef]
Chouak, M. , Mousseau, A. , Reveillon, D. , Dufresne, L. , and Seers, P. , 2015, “ Study of Transient Effects in the Internal Flow of a Diesel Fuel Injector,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-0923.
Payri, F. , Payri, R. , Salvador, F. J. , and Martínez-López, J. , 2012, “ A Contribution to the Understanding of Cavitation Effects in Diesel Injector Nozzles Through a Combined Experimental and Computational Investigation,” Comput. Fluids, 58, pp. 88–101. [CrossRef]
Salvador, F. J. , Martínez-López, J. , Caballer, M. , and De Alfonso, C. , 2013, “ Study of the Influence of the Needle Lift on the Internal Flow and Cavitation Phenomenon in Diesel Injector Nozzles by CFD Using RANS Methods,” Energy Convers. Manage., 66, pp. 246–256. [CrossRef]
Som, S. , Suresh, K. , Aggarwal, E. M. , El-Hannouny, D. E. , and Longman , 2010, “ Investigation of Nozzle Flow and Cavitation Characteristics in a Diesel Injector,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(4), p. 042802. [CrossRef]
Chiavola, O. , and Palmieri, F. , 2007, “ Modeling Needle Motion Influence on Nozzle Flow in High Pressure Injection System,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0250.
Margot, X. , Hoyas, S. , Fajardo, P. , and Patouna, S. , 2011, “ CFD Study of Needle Motion Influence on the Spray Conditions of Single-Hole Injectors,” Atomization Sprays, 21(1), pp. 31–40. [CrossRef]
Payri, F. , Margot, X. , Patouna, S. , Ravet, F. , and Funk, M. , 2009, “ A CFD Study of the Effect of the Needle Movement on the Cavitation Pattern of Diesel Injectors,” SAE Paper No. 2009-24-0025. https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2009-24-0025/
Xue, Q. , Som, S. , Battistoni, M. , Longman, D. E. , Zhao, H. , Senecal, P. K. , and Pomraning, E. , 2013, “ Three-Dimensional Simulations of the Transient Internal Flow in a Diesel Injector: Effects of Needle Movement,” 25th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 5–8. http://www.academia.edu/17369644/Three-dimensional_Simulations_of_the_Transient_Internal_Flow_in_a_Diesel_Injector_Effects_of_Needle_Movement
Pelletingeas, A. , Dufresne, L. , and Seers, P. , 2016, “ Characterization of Flow Structures in a Diesel Injector for Different Needle Lifts and a Fluctuating Injection Pressure,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 138(8), p. 081105. [CrossRef]
Papoutsakis, A. , Theodorakakos, A. , Giannadakis, E. , Papoulias, D. , and Gavaises, M. , 2009, “ LES Predictions of the Vortical Flow Structures in Diesel Injector Nozzles,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-0833.
Battistoni, M. , Poggiani, C. , and Som, S. , 2015, “ Prediction of the Nozzle Flow and Jet Characteristics at Start and End of Injection: Transient Behaviors,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 9(1), p. 8497. [CrossRef]
Battistoni, M. , Xue, Q. , and Som, S. , 2016, “ Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of Spray Transients: Start and End of Injection Phenomena,” Oil Gas Sci. Technol.–Revue d'IFP Energies Nouvelles, 71(1), p. 4. [CrossRef]
Salvador, F. J. , Martínez-López, J. , Romero, J. V. , and Roselló, M. D. , 2013, “ Computational Study of the Cavitation Phenomenon and Its Interaction With the Turbulence Developed in Diesel Injector Nozzles by Large Eddy Simulation (LES),” Math. Comput. Modell., 57(7–8), pp. 1656–1662. [CrossRef]
Desantes, J. M. , Salvador, F. J. , Carreres, M. , and Martínez-López, J. , 2015, “ Large-Eddy Simulation Analysis of the Influence of the Needle Lift on the Cavitation in Diesel Injector Nozzles,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D: J. Automob. Eng., 229(4), pp. 407–423. [CrossRef]
Koukouvinis, P. , Gavaises, M. , Li, J. , and Wang, L. , 2016, “ Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Injector Including Cavitation Effects and Correlation to Erosion Damage,” Fuel, 175, pp. 26–39. [CrossRef]
Örley, F. , Hickel, S. , Schmidt, S. J. , and Adams, N. A. , 2017, “ Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent, Cavitating Fuel Flow Inside a 9-Hole Diesel Injector Including Needle Movement,” Int. J. Engine Res., 18(3), pp. 195–211. [CrossRef]
Payri, R. , Tormos, B. , Gimeno, J. , and Bracho, G. , 2010, “ The Potential of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Code for the Modeling of Flow in Diesel Injectors,” Math. Comput. Modell., 52(7–8), pp. 1151–1160. [CrossRef]
Lumley, J. L. , 1967, “ The Structure of Inhomogeneous Turbulent Flows,” Atmospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation, A. M. Yaglom , and V. I. Tatarsky , eds., Nauka, Moscow, Russia, pp. 166–178.
Berkooz, G. , Philip, H. , and Lumley, J. L. , 1993, “ The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in the Analysis of Turbulent Flows,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 25(1), pp. 539–575. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , Reuss, D. L. , Hung, D. L. S. , and Sick, V. , 2013, “ A Practical Guide for Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in Engine Research,” Int. J. Engine Res., 14(4), pp. 307–319. [CrossRef]
Holmes, P. , Lumley, J. L. , and Berkooz, G. , 2012, “ Turbulence, Coherent Structures, Dynamical Systems and Symmetry,” Part of Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Tropea, C. , and Yarin, A. L. , 2007, “ Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics,” Springer Handbooks, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Sirovich, L. , 1987, “ Turbulence and the Dynamics of Coherent Structures—I: Coherent Structures,” Q. Appl. Math., 45(3), pp. 561–571. [CrossRef]
Bergmann, M. , and Cordier, L. , 2007, “ Contrôle Optimal Par Réduction de Modèle POD et Méthode à Région de Confiance du Sillage Laminaire D'un Cylindre Circulaire,” Mech. Ind., 8(2), pp. 111–118.
Siebers, D. L. , 1999, “ Scaling Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in Diesel Sprays Based on Mixing-Limited Vaporization,” SAE Int. J. Diesel Fuel Injection Sprays, 108(3), pp. 703–728.
Sagaut, P. , 2006, “ Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows,” Scientific Computation (Mathematical & Computational Physics Theoretical), 3rd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Nicoud, F. , and Ducros, F. , 1999, “ Subgrid-Scale Stress Modelling Based on the Square of the Velocity Gradient Tensor,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 62(3), pp. 183–200. [CrossRef]
Moser, R. D. , Kim, J. , and Mansour, N. N. , 1999, “ Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Channel Flow Up to Re τ= 590,” Phys. Fluids, 11(4), pp. 943–945. [CrossRef]
CD-Adapco, 2014, “ STAR-CCM+ User Guide Manual 10.04.009 (CAE/CFD Commercial Software),” CD-adapco™ software, Melville, NY.
Jarrin, N. , Sofiane, B. , Dominique, L. , and Robert, P. , 2006, “ A Synthetic-Eddy-Method for Generating Inflow Conditions for Large-Eddy Simulations,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 27(4), pp. 585–593. [CrossRef]
Mann, J. , 1998, “ Wind Field Simulation,” Probab. Eng. Mech., 13(4), pp. 269–282. [CrossRef]
Mann, J. , 2006, “ The Spatial Structure of Neutral Atmospheric Surface-Layer Turbulence,” J. Fluid Mech., 273(1), pp. 141–168.
Gilling, L. , and Sørensen, N. N. , 2011, “ Imposing Resolved Turbulence in CFD Simulations,” Wind Energy, 14(5), pp. 661–676. [CrossRef]
Keck, R.-E. , Mikkelsen, R. , Troldborg, N. , Maré, M. , and Hansen, K. S. , 2014, “ Synthetic Atmospheric Turbulence and Wind Shear in Large Eddy Simulations of Wind Turbine Wakes,” Wind Energy, 17(8), pp. 1247–1267. [CrossRef]
Ma, X. , Geisler, R. , and Schröder, A. , 2017, “ Experimental Investigation of Three-Dimensional Vortex Structures Downstream of Vortex Generators Over a Backward-Facing Step,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 98(2), pp. 389–415. [CrossRef]
Chatterjee, A. , 2000, “ An Introduction to the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition,” Curr. Sci., 78(7), pp. 808–817. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24103957
Jimenez, J. , 1999, “ An Overview of LES Validation,” A Selection of Test Cases for the Validation of Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows, The North Atlantic Treaty Organization , AGARD Advisory Report No. 345.
Chatzikyriakou, D. , Buongiorno, J. , Caviezel, D. , and Lakehal, D. , 2015, “ DNS and LES of Turbulent Flow in a Closed Channel Featuring a Pattern of Hemispherical Roughness Elements,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 53, pp. 29–43. [CrossRef]
Gritskevich, M. S. , Garbaruk, A. V. , Schütze, J. , and Menter, F. R. , 2012, “ Development of DDES and IDDES Formulations for the k-ω Shear Stress Transport Model,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 88(3), pp. 431–449. [CrossRef]
Germano, M. , Piomelli, U. , Moin, P. , and Cabot, W. H. , 1991, “ A Dynamic Subgrid‐Scale Eddy Viscosity Model,” Phys. Fluids A: Fluid Dyn., 3(7), pp. 1760–1765. [CrossRef]
Georgiadis, N. J. , Rizzetta, D. P. , and Fureby, C. , 2010, “ Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research,” AIAA J., 48(8), pp. 1772–1784. [CrossRef]
Saddoughi, S. G. , and Veeravalli, S. V. , 1994, “ Local Isotropy in Turbulent Boundary Layers at High Reynolds Number,” J. Fluid Mech., 268(1), pp. 333–372. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

CFD domain, sac mesh, and boundary conditions: (a) CFD domain, (b) symmetry plane mesh, and (c) close-up view on sac volume mesh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of mean pressure fields at 10% of lift: (a) LES results without nozzle and (b) URANS results with nozzle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Instantaneous LES velocity magnitude field at the symmetry plane for different partial needle lifts, field normalized by the jet velocity at 6% (Vjet@6%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Instantaneous streamlines of the velocity fields presented in Fig. 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Relative energy contribution of the first six modes as a function of normalized needle lift

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of needle lift on the relative fluctuating kinetic energy of POD modes 1, 1–5, and 1–199

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Energy content of POD modes 1–199 with respect to the total energy associated with modes 1–199: (a) relative energy and (b) cumulative energy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Three-dimensional CS of the POD mode k=0 represented with iso-surfaces of Φu¯0=0.2 for 6%, 8%, 10%, 16%, and 31% fixed lifts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Three-dimensional CS of the POD mode k=1 represented with iso-surfaces of Φu¯1=0.2 for 6%, 8%, 10%, 16%, and 31% fixed lifts: (left column) YZ plane view; (right column) XY plane view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Three-dimensional CS of the POD mode k=2 (left) and 3 (right) for a needle lift of 6%: (a) YZ plane view and (b) XY plane view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Streamlines of CS of the reduced-order model (0 + 1) at a needle lift of 6% at the 40 deg plan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Energy spectrum of velocity fluctuations in the sac volume at high lift of 31% as function of the wavenumber (spectrum averaged over 24 windows). Interfaces of the inertial zone (slope ≈−5/3) are delimited by κEI and κDI.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of the normalized fluctuations u′,v′,w′ and normalized <u′v′> of the model used herein against DNS results [32] and WALE results [42]. The operator <·> denotes temporal averaging.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Validation tests on SGS models against DNS results [32], LES DSMG from Ref. [44] and LES WALE [31] of the mean velocity profile U+=f(y+) (in wall units)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Validation tests on numerical schemes against DNS results [32], LES DSMG [44], and LES WALE results [31] of the mean velocity profile U+=f(y+) (in wall units)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Computational grid and boundary conditions of the channel flow model on isometric (top) and xy plan (bottom) views. The pairs (A1,A2) and (B1,B2) refer to periodic interfaces.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In