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Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

On Dynamics of Acoustically Driven Bistable Fluidic Valves

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Mair

Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford Thermofluids Institute,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: Michael.Mair@eng.ox.ac.uk

Marko Bacic, Peter Ireland

Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford Thermofluids Institute,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK

1Corresponding author.

2The second author is seconded part-time from Rolls Royce to the Oxford Thermofluids Institute.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 23, 2018; final manuscript received October 26, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Stefan aus der Wiesche.

J. Fluids Eng 141(6), 061202 (Dec 24, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1112; doi: 10.1115/1.4041890 History: Received February 23, 2018; Revised October 26, 2018

The dynamics of an actively controlled fluidic diverter with novel actuation method are presented. This bistable fluidic valve is based on the Coanda effect and is able to switch the main flow solely by means of acoustic excitation. The switching is explained through a combination of experiments and large eddy simulations (LES). The switching time and minimum energy required are characterized for a range of pressure ratios, acoustic excitation frequencies, and input powers. It is shown that the switching mechanism depends on the excitation of natural instabilities inside the free shear layer. An enhanced roll-up of vortices at the excitation frequency increases the rate of entrainment and results in a transverse pressure gradient sufficient to counteract the Coanda effect leading to jet detachment and switching.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the FSD: instantaneous velocity field (LES) indicating attachment on side B and key dimensions in mm

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Fig. 8

Absolute and nondimensional minimum switching time as a function of Pr

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Fig. 7

Comparison of preferred frequencies found experimentally with the analytical prediction of f(Stθ = 0.012) using ue = (m˙exp/ρA)

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Fig. 6

Required energy input Ein versus pressure ratio Pr for different SPL at f = 2.5 kHz

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Fig. 5

Energy input versus pressure ratio for different frequencies and their respective minimum required sound pressure levels

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Fig. 4

The variation in switching time Ts over pressure ratio Pr for SPL = 104 dB and f = 1.5 kHz

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Fig. 3

Successful switching event—total pressure measured via pitot tube referenced to atmosphere

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the input and output signals of the experimental setup

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Fig. 9

Steady-state characteristic—comparison of mass flow rates between experiments and CFD

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Fig. 18

Computational domain of the full-scale model (grid 1)

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Fig. 10

(a) Pressure isolines (XY midplane, Z = 1.5 mm) of the reduced-size model at m˙ = 2.9 LPM (PR = 1.0027) and (b) frequency spectra of pressure fluctuation at (x/h) = 7

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Fig. 11

Location and mesh of pitot tubes inside channel A and B of the full-scale model

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Fig. 12

Mass flow m˙ inside channels A and B during switching

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Fig. 13

Instantaneous velocity vector field at four different time steps T1, T2, T3, and T4 indicating shear layer roll-up during acoustic excitation

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Fig. 14

Average static pressure on the upper and lower half-plane (x = 2h) filtered using robust local regression

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Fig. 15

Volume of entrained fluid between the nozzle orifice and the point of reattachment as a function of time

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Fig. 16

Identification of vortices going through the upper and lower half-plane (x = 2h) using the λ2 vortex criterion (filtered using robust local regression)

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Fig. 17

Switching time ts obtained experimentally and analytically

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Fig. 19

Resolved energy spectrum measured at (x/h) = 7 inside the unattached shear layer for grid 1 and grid 2. The −5/3 slope indicates the theoretical energy cascade as depicted by Kolmogorov's hypothesis.

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