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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Cloud Cavitation Behavior on a Hydrofoil Due to Fluid-Structure Interaction

[+] Author and Article Information
Samuel M. Smith

Cavitation Research Laboratory,
Australian Maritime College,
Launceston 7248, Tasmania, Australia,
e-mail: ssmith18@utas.edu.au

James A. Venning, Dean R. Giosio, Bryce W. Pearce

Cavitation Research Laboratory,
Australian Maritime College,
Launceston 7248, Tasmania, Australia

Paul A. Brandner

Professor
Cavitation Research Laboratory,
Australian Maritime College,
Launceston 7248, Tasmania, Australia

Yin L. Young

Professor
Department of Naval Architecture and Marine
Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 6, 2018; final manuscript received November 19, 2018; published online January 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Olivier Coutier-Delgosha.

J. Fluids Eng 141(4), 041105 (Jan 08, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1088; doi: 10.1115/1.4042067 History: Received February 06, 2018; Revised November 19, 2018

Despite recent extensive research into fluid–structure interaction (FSI) of cavitating hydrofoils, there remain insufficient experimental data to explain many of the observed phenomena. The cloud cavitation behavior around a hydrofoil due to the effect of FSI is investigated, utilizing rigid and compliant three-dimensional (3D) hydrofoils held in a cantilevered configuration in a cavitation tunnel. The hydrofoils have identical undeformed geometry of tapered planform with a constant modified NACA0009 profile. The rigid model is made of stainless steel and the compliant model of a carbon and glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin with the structural fibers aligned along the spanwise direction to avoid material bend-twist coupling. Tests were conducted at an incidence of 6 deg, a mean chord-based Reynolds number of 0.7 × 106 and cavitation number of 0.8. Force measurements were simultaneously acquired with high-speed imaging to enable correlation of forces with tip bending deformations and cavity physics. Hydrofoil compliance was seen to dampen the higher frequency force fluctuations while showing strong correlation between normal force and tip deflection. The 3D nature of the flow field was seen to cause complex cavitation behavior with two shedding modes observed on both models.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cloud cavitation about a NACA0009 stainless steel hydrofoil at σ = 0.8, Rec = 0.7 × 106 and α = 6 deg

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Fig. 2

Hydrofoil model assembly showing an exploded view of the clamping housing arrangement allowing continuity of the reinforcing fibers for the CFRP models [30]

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Fig. 3

Narrowband X force power spectral density for the rigid and flexible hydrofoils at σ = 0.8, Rec = 0.7 × 106 and α = 6 deg. The two spectra share a common peak at 37 Hz, with secondary peaks exhibited at 49 Hz and 42 Hz for the rigid and flexible hydrofoil, respectively.

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Fig. 4

Sample time series of normal force coefficient with selected images from high-speed imaging for the rigid hydrofoil. The three curves of pixel intensity are taken at 0.75c, for spanwise locations of 0.24s, 0.47s, and 0.77s from the root, as indicated by the solid lines in (c) and (j). The horizontal and vertical dashed lines in (c) and (j) indicate the position where the space-time diagrams of Figs. 68 were generated. Data were taken at σ = 0.8, Rec = 0.7 × 106 and α = 6 deg

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Fig. 5

Sample time series of normal force coefficient with selected images from high-speed imaging for the flexible hydrofoil. Simultaneous normalized unsteady tip bending displacement (dot-dashed line) is also presented. The three curves of pixel intensity are taken at 0.75c, for span-wise locations of 0.24s, 0.47s, and 0.77s from the root, as indicated by the yellow solid lines in (c) and (j). The horizontal and vertical green dashed lines in (c) and (j) indicate the position where the space-time diagrams of Figs. 68 were generated. Data were taken at σ = 0.8, Rec = 0.7 × 106 and α = 6 deg.

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Fig. 6

Chordwise spacetime diagrams taken 0.33s along the span (indicated by horizontal dashed green line in Figs. 4(c) and 5(c)) of a single shedding cycle of the rigid hydrofoil. The unannotated diagram (a) shows a clear depiction of a single shedding cycle. The annotated diagram (b) shows the downstream end of the attached cavity (oblique solid line), path of the re-entrant jet (arrows) along with its upstream extent (solid curve), the point in time the cavity becomes detached (vertical dashed line), and the path of the shedding cavity (dashed curve). The space-time diagrams were taken at σ = 0.8, Rec = 0.7 × 106 and α = 6 deg. The flow direction is from top to bottom

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Fig. 7

Chordwise space-time diagram from high speed images taken 0.33s from the root (indicated by a horizontal dashed line in Figs. 4(c) and 5(c)) for the rigid (a) and flexible hydrofoil (b) at σ = 0.8, Rec = 0.7 × 106 and α = 6 deg. The square in (a) indicates the cut-out taken for the shedding mechanism diagram in Fig. 6. The flow direction is top to bottom: (a) rigid hydrofoil and (b) flexible hydrofoil

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Fig. 8

Spanwise space-time diagrams from high speed images 0.11c upstream of the midchord (indicated by a vertical green dashed line in Figs. 4(c) and 5(c) for the rigid (a) and flexible hydrofoil (b) at σ = 0.8, Rec = 0.7 × 106 and α = 6 deg. The flow direction is left to right: (a) rigid hydrofoil and (b) flexible hydrofoil

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