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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Effects of Downstream Structures on Aero Elastic Energy Harvesters From Wake-Induced Vibration

[+] Author and Article Information
Pakorn Uttayopas

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kasetsart University,
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
e-mail: mindgats@gmail.com

Chawalit Kittichaikarn

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kasetsart Unversity,
Bangkok 10900, Thailand
e-mail: fengclk@ku.ac.th

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received February 26, 2018; final manuscript received November 27, 2018; published online January 7, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Jun Chen.

J. Fluids Eng 141(7), 071103 (Jan 07, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1122; doi: 10.1115/1.4042169 History: Received February 26, 2018; Revised November 27, 2018

An upstream cylindrical bluff body connected to a tip body via an aluminum cantilever beam was tested as energy harvester in a wind tunnel. The characteristics and behavior of the different tip body configurations and lengths of aluminum cantilever beam were studied to optimize design to extract wind energy. Particular attention was paid to measure vibration amplitude and frequency response as a function of reduced velocity. Dynamic response showed that the device's behavior was dependent on both tip body shape and cantilever beam length. Flow visualization tests showed that high amplitude vibration was obtainable when a vortex was fully formed on each side of the downstream tip body. This was exemplified in a symmetrical triangular prism tip body at L/D1 = 5, where its structure's vibration frequency was close to its natural frequency. At such configuration, electrical energy was captured using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam of different load resistances, where an optimized load resistance could be found for each Reynolds number. Although power output and efficiency obtained were considerably weak when compared to those of traditional wind turbine, the design merits further research to improve its performance under various circumstances.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of the proposed oscillation-based energy harvesting devices: (a) and (b) isometric view and side view of an energy harvester with L/D1 ratio = 5 and symmetrical triangular prism tip body on free end, along with the variables characterizing energy harvester properties; (c) illustration of the various tip body configurations used in the experiment, from left to right symmetrical triangular, cylindrical, and square prisms, respectively

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental wind tunnel. Air is drawn through the tunnel, from left to right, by turning on an axis fan. A pitot tub measures wind speed while a camera is set up above a test section to record the experiment's results.

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Fig. 3

Top view showing the energy harvester's encounter of incoming air flow and beam displacement from equilibrium base line to cantilever beam tip

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Fig. 4

(a) PVDF piezoelectric beam used in this study and (b) top view of the energy harvester, along with PVDF beam installation and a measurement circuit. Yellow arrows indicate the directions of vibrations that generate electrical power output which was transverse to the incoming flow.

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Fig. 5

Nondimensional transverse vibration amplitude for each tip body configuration as a function of reduced velocity for: (a) systematical triangular prism tip body, (b) cylindrical tip body, and (c) square prism tip body

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Fig. 6

Example of a transverse vibration spectrogram as a function of time of a harvester with square prism tip body at L/D1 = 5 and at Ur = 67.53 (ReD = 18,438)

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Fig. 7

Nondimensional frequency response for each configuration without energy extraction as a function of reduced velocity: (a) for systematical triangular prism tip body, (b) for cylindrical tip body, and (c) for square prism tip body

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Fig. 8

Smoke wire flow visualization of energy harvester with triangular prism tip body at U = 3 m/s and ReD = 6146, flow from right to left: (a) L/D1 = 2, (b) L/D1 = 3, (c) L/D1 = 4, and (d) L/D1 = 5

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Fig. 9

Smoke wire flow visualization of energy harvester with cylindrical prism tip body, flow from right to left: (a) L/D1 = 2 at U = 3 m/s and ReD = 6146, (b) L/D1 = 2 at U = 2 m/s and ReD = 4097, (c) L/D1 = 3 at U = 3 m/s and ReD = 6146, (d) L/D1 = 2 at U = 1.5 m/s and ReD = 3073, (e) L/D1 = 4 at U = 3 m/s and ReD = 6146, and (f) L/D1 = 5 at U = 3 m/s and ReD = 6146

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Fig. 10

Example of transverse vibration of spectrogram as a function of time of a harvester with cylindrical tip body at L/D1= 4 and at Ur =33.99 (ReD = 14,371)

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Fig. 11

Smoke wire flow visualization of energy harvester with square prism tip body at U = 3 m/s and ReD = 6146, flow from right to left: (a) L/D1 = 2, (b) L/D1 = 3, (c) L/D1 = 4, and (d) L/D1 = 5

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Fig. 12

The effects of load resistances on selected harvester model RMS electrical power output for different Reynolds numbers (3000 < ReD < 20,077)

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Fig. 13

The effects of load resistance on selected harvester model efficiency for different Reynolds numbers (3000 < ReD < 20,077)

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