0
Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Calculation of Stall Margin Enhancement With Micro-Tip Injection in an Axial Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaohua Liu

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xiaohua-liu@sjtu.edu.cn

Jinfang Teng

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

Jun Yang

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
University of Shanghai for Science
and Technology,
Shanghai 200093, China
e-mail: yangjun@usst.edu.cn

Xiaofeng Sun, Dakun Sun, Chen He

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China

Juan Du

Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS,
Beijing 100190, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 20, 2018; final manuscript received January 9, 2019; published online March 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Kwang-Yong Kim.

J. Fluids Eng 141(8), 081109 (Mar 04, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1631; doi: 10.1115/1.4042561 History: Received September 20, 2018; Revised January 09, 2019

Although steady micro-injection is experimentally validated as an attractive method in improving the stall margin of axial compressors, up to now a fast prediction of stall boundary remains some way off. This investigation is to propose such a prediction model. A flow stability model is developed to further consider the effect of high-speed micro-injection. After the base flow field is calculated by steady computational fluid dynamics simulation, a body force model is applied to reproduce the effect of blade on the flow turning and loss. A group of homogeneous equations are obtained based on linearized Navier–Stokes equations and harmonic decomposition of small flow disturbance. The stall onset point can be judged by the imaginary part of the resultant eigenvalue. After the existing experimental results are summarized, an unsteady numerical simulation reveals that the computed characteristics and radial profile of pressure rise coefficient are almost unchanged. The unsteady response of compressor to the micro-injection is preliminarily verified based on the observation of the disturbed spillage of tip leakage flow. It is verified that this approach can provide a qualitative assessment of stall point with acceptable computational cost. Both high injection velocity and short axial gap between injector and rotor leading edge are beneficial for the stall margin extension. These theoretical findings agree well with experimental measurements. It is inferred that the spillage of tip clearance flow, which is inward pushed by higher speed injection with shortened distance away from rotor, could lead to further stable flow field.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Greitzer, E. M. , 1980, “ Review—Axial Compressor Stall Phenomena,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 102(2), pp. 134–151. [CrossRef]
Zheng, X. , Sun, Z. , Kawakubo, T. , and Tamaki, H. , 2018, “ Stability Improvement of a Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by a Nonaxisymmetric Vaned Diffuser,” ASME J. Turbomach., 140(4), p. 041007. [CrossRef]
Coleman, K. L. , and Mcgee, I. O. G. , 2013, “ Aeromechanical Control of High-Speed Axial Compressor Stall and Engine Performance—Part II: Assessments of Methodology,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 135(5), p. 051102. [CrossRef]
Horn, W. , Schmidt, K. , and Staudacher, S. , 2009, “ Effects of Compressor Tip Injection on Aircraft Engine Performance and Stability,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(3), p. 031011. [CrossRef]
Halawa, T. , Gadala, M. S. , Alqaradawi, M. , and Badr, O. , 2015, “ Influence of Changing Casing Groove Parameters on the Performance of Centrifugal Compressors Near Stall Condition,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 138(2), p. 021104. [CrossRef]
Dong, X. , Sun, D. , Li, F. , Jin, D. , Gui, X. , and Sun, X. , 2018, “ Effects of Stall Precursor-Suppressed Casing Treatment on a Low-Speed Compressor With Swirl Distortion,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 140(9), p. 091101. [CrossRef]
Guinet, C. , Inzenhofer, A. , and Gümmer, V. , 2017, “ Influencing Parameters of Tip Blowing Interacting With Rotor Tip Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(2), p. 021010. [CrossRef]
Dinh, C. , Heo, M. , and Kim, K. , 2015, “ Aerodynamic Performance of Transonic Axial Compressor With a Casing Groove Combined With Blade Tip Injection and Ejection,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol., 46, pp. 176–187. [CrossRef]
Geng, S. , Zhang, H. , Chen, J. , and Huang, W. , 2007, “ Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow Pattern in an Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor With Micro Tip Injection,” J. Therm. Sci., 16(4), pp. 309–320. [CrossRef]
Chen, J. , Johnson, B. P. , Hathaway, M. D. , and Webster, R. S. , 2009, “ Flow Characteristics of Tip Injection on Compressor Rotating Spike Via Time-Accurate Simulation,” J. Propul. Power, 25(3), pp. 678–687. [CrossRef]
Grosvenor, A. D. , Rixon, G. S. , Sailer, L. M. , Matheson, M. A. , Gutzwiller, D. P. , Demeulenaere, A. , Gontier, M. , and Strazisar, A. J. , 2015, “ High Resolution RANS Nonlinear Harmonic Study of Stage 67 Tip Injection Physics,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051005. [CrossRef]
Suder, K. L. , Hathaway, M. D. , Thorp, S. A. , Strazisar, A. J. , and Bright, M. B. , 2001, “ Compressor Stability Enhancement Using Discrete Tip Injection,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123(1), pp. 14–23. [CrossRef]
Shi, P. J. , Qiao, W. Y. , Wang, L. F. , Chen, W. J. , and Xu, K. B. , 2014, “ Experiment on Axial-Compressor Stability Enhancement by Blade Tip Injection,” J. Aerosp. Power, 29(2), pp. 384–390.
Wei, W. , Zhang, H. , Chu, W. , and Kuang, H. , 2017, “ Experimental and Numerical Study of Tip Injection in a Subsonic Axial Flow Compressor,” Chin. J. Aeronaut., 30(3), pp. 907–917. [CrossRef]
Spakovszky, Z. S. , Weigl, H. J. , Paduano, J. D. , van Schalkwyk, C. M. , Suder, K. L. , and Bright, M. M. , 1999, “ Rotating Stall Control in a High-Speed Stage With Inlet Distortion: Part I—Radial Distortion,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121(3), pp. 510–516. [CrossRef]
Day, I. J. , 1993, “ Active Suppression of Rotating Stall and Surge in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(1), pp. 40–47. [CrossRef]
Weigl, H. J. , Paduano, J. D. , Frechette, L. G. , Epstein, A. H. , Greitzer, E. M. , Bright, M. M. , and Strazisar, A. J. , 1998, “ Active Stabilization of Rotating Stall and Surge in a Transonic Single-Stage Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(4), pp. 625–636. [CrossRef]
Nie, C. , Xu, G. , Cheng, X. , and Chen, J. , 2002, “ Micro Air Injection and Its Unsteady Response in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124(4), pp. 572–579. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , Du, J. , Li, Z. , and Lin, F. , 2018, “ Stability Enhancement With Self-Recirculating Injection in Axial Flow Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 140(7), p. 071001. [CrossRef]
Hah, C. , and Shin, H. W. , 2011, “ Study of Near-Stall Flow Behavior in a Modern Transonic Fan With Compound Sweep,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 134(7), p. 071101. [CrossRef]
Wu, Y. , Wu, J. , Zhang, G. , and Chu, W. , 2014, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics Near Casing in an Axial Flow Compressor Rotor at Stable and Stall Inception Conditions,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(11), p. 111106. [CrossRef]
Pullan, G. , Young, A. M. , Day, I. J. , Greitzer, E. M. , and Spakovszky, Z. S. , 2015, “ Origins and Structure of Spike-Type Rotating Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051007. [CrossRef]
Hewkin-Smith, M. , Pullan, G. , Grimshaw, S. D. , Greitzer, E. M. , and Spakovszky, Z. S. , 2017, “ The Role of Tip Leakage Flow in Spike-Type Rotating Stall Inception,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-63655.
Kim, S. , Pullan, G. , Hall, C. A. , Grewe, R. P. , Wilson, M. J. , and Gunn, E. , 2018, “ Stall Inception in Low Pressure Ratio Fans,” ASME Paper No. GT2018-75153.
Li, J. , Lin, F. , Tong, Z. , Nie, C. , and Chen, J. , 2015, “ The Dual Mechanisms and Implementations of Stability Enhancement With Discrete Tip Injection in Axial Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(3), p. 031010. [CrossRef]
Tong, Z. , Li, L. , Nie, C. , Lin, B. , Cui, Y. , and Qi, W. , 2009, “ Online Stall Control With the Digital Signal Processing Method in an Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59509.
Vo, H. D. , Tan, C. S. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 2008, “ Criteria for Spike Initiated Rotating Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(1), p. 011023. [CrossRef]
Hiller, S. , Matzgeller, R. , and Horn, W. , 2011, “ Stability Enhancement of a Multistage Compressor by Air Injection,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(3), p. 031009. [CrossRef]
Sun, X. , Sun, D. , Liu, X. , Yu, W. , and Wang, X. , 2014, “ Theory of Compressor Stability Enhancement Using Novel Casing Treatment: Part I—Methodology,” AIAA J. Propul. Power, 30(5), pp. 1224–1235. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. , Sun, D. , Sun, X. , and Wang, X. , 2012, “ Flow Stability Model for Fan/Compressors With Annular Duct and Novel Casing Treatment,” Chin. J. Aeronaut., 25(2), pp. 143–154. [CrossRef]
Moore, F. K. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1986, “ A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems: Part I—Development of Equations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108(1), pp. 68–76. [CrossRef]
Bonnaure, L. P. , 1991, “ Modelling High-Speed Multistage Compressor Stability,” Master thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/13046
Sun, X. , Liu, X. , Hou, R. , and Sun, D. , 2013, “ A General Theory of Flow-Instability Inception in Turbomachinery,” AIAA J., 51(7), pp. 1675–1687. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. , Sun, D. , and Sun, X. , 2014, “ Basic Studies of Flow-Instability Inception in Axial Compressors Using Eigenvalue Method,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(3), p. 031102. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. , Zhou, Y. , Sun, X. , and Sun, D. , 2015, “ Calculation of Flow Instability Inception in High-Speed Axial Compressors Based on an Eigenvalue Theory,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(6), p. 061007. [CrossRef]
He, C. , Ma, Y. , Liu, X. , Sun, D. , and Sun, X. , 2018, “ Aerodynamic Instabilities of Swept Airfoil Design in Transonic Axial-Flow Compressors,” AIAA J., 56(5), pp. 1878–1893. [CrossRef]
Xie, Z. , Liu, Y. , Liu, X. , Lu, L. , and Sun, X. , 2018, “ Effect of RANS Method on the Stall Onset Prediction by an Eigenvalue Approach,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 141(3), p. 031401. [CrossRef]
Longley, J. P. , 1997, “ Calculating the Flowfield Behaviour of High-Speed Multi-Stage Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-468.
Gong, Y. , Tan, C. S. , Gordon, K. A. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1999, “ A Computational Model for Short-Wavelength Stall Inception and Development in Multistage Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121(4), pp. 726–734. [CrossRef]
Chima, R. V. , 2006, “ A Three-Dimensional Unsteady CFD Model of Compressor Stability,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90040.
He, L. , 1997, “ Computational Study of Rotating-Stall Inception in Axial Compressors,” J. Propul. Power, 13(1), pp. 31–38. [CrossRef]
Gordon, K. A. , 1999, “ Three-Dimensional Rotating Stall Inception and Effects of Rotating Tip Clearance Asymmetry in Axial Compressors,” Ph.D thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8183
Tong, Z. , 2006, “ The Interactive Unsteady Mechanism Between Tip Leakage Vortex, Stall Inception and Micro Tip Injection in Low-Speed Axial Compressor,” Ph.D thesis, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Spalart, P. , and Allmaras, S. , 1994, “ A One-Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic Flows,” Recherche Aérospatiale, (1), pp. 5–21.
Jameson, A. , 1991, “ Time Dependent Calculations Using Multigrid, With Applications to Unsteady Flows Past Airfoils and Wings,” AIAA Paper No. AIAA 91-1596.
Wang, W. , Chu, W. , Zhang, H. , and Wu, Y. , 2014, “ Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Circumferential Coverage of Injection in a Transonic Compressor With Discrete Tip Injection,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25420.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Meridional plane of a compressor with an arbitrary streamline

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Sketch of a simplified body force model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Low-speed three-stage compressor test rig (Adapted from Nie et al. [18])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Stall margin improvement for different axial gap between injectors and leading edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Stall margin enhancement with the increased nondimensional injection velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic of single rotor with tip injector

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Contour of nondimensional axial velocity at 99.0% span

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Computed performance line of the steady and unsteady cases with high-speed and low-speed injection. Figure (b) is an enlarged view of local range.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of radial profile of relative total pressure coefficient in front of and behind rotor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Numerical probe at 98.9% span inside the blade passage (PS = pressure side and SS = suction side)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Unsteady static pressure rise coefficient monitored by the numerical probe in one period Tb

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Contour of negative axial velocity for three time steps in one blade passing period Tb at flow coefficient of 0.345

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of computed static pressure rise and measured performance line of the single rotor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Computed damping factors of the theoretical model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Computed damping factor versus nondimensional injection velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Computed damping factor versus nondimensional gap between injector and rotor leading edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Computed stall margin improvement versus nondimensional injection velocity

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In