Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Numerical Simulation of Drag Reduction in Microgrooved Substrates Using Lattice-Boltzmann Method

[+] Author and Article Information
H. Asadzadeh

Center of Excellence in Energy Conversion
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Sharif University of Technology,
Azadi Avenue,
P.O. Box 11365-9567,
Tehran 11365-9567, Iran
e-mail: homayoun.sut@gmail.com

A. Moosavi

Center of Excellence in Energy Conversion
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Sharif University of Technology,
Azadi Avenue,
P.O. Box 11365-9567
Tehran 11365-9567, Iran
e-mail: Moosavi@sharif.edu

A. Etemadi

Center of Excellence in Energy Conversion
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Sharif University of Technology,
Azadi Avenue,
P.O. Box 11365-9567,
Tehran 11365-9567, Iran
e-mail: armin.e90@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 28, 2018; final manuscript received February 8, 2019; published online April 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Moran Wang.

J. Fluids Eng 141(7), 071111 (Apr 04, 2019) (18 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1650; doi: 10.1115/1.4042888 History: Received September 28, 2018; Revised February 08, 2019

We study drag reduction of a uniform flow over a flat surface due to a series of rectangular microgrooves created on the surface. The results reveal that making grooves on the surface usually leads to the generation of secondary vortices inside the grooves that, in turn, decreases the friction drag force and increases the pressure drag force. By increasing the thickness of the grooves to the thickness of the obstacle, the pressure drag increases due to the enhancement of the generated vortices and the occurrence of separation phenomenon and the friction drag reduces due to a decrease of the velocity gradient on the surface. In addition, by increasing the grooves depth ratio, the pressure drag coefficient decreases and the friction drag coefficient increases. However, the impact of the pressure drag coefficient is higher than that of the friction drag coefficient. From a specific point, increasing the groove depth ratio does not effect on decreasing the total pressure drag of the plate. Therefore, creating the grooves in flat surfaces would reduce the total drag coefficient of the plate if the thickness of the grooves does not exceed a specific size and the depth of the grooves is chosen to be sufficiently large. The lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used and the optimal reduction of the drag coefficient is calculated. It is found that for the width ratio equal to 0.19 and the groove depth ratio equal to 0.2548, about 7% decrease is achieved for the average total drag.

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Fig. 2

Lattice arrangements for 2D problems, D2Q9

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Fig. 1

(a) The schematic of the free flow passes from a semi-infinite flat surface with depth, length, and width equal to H, Lx and Ly, respectively and (b) The schematic of flow passing over a semi-infinite surface with rectangular microgrooves which the thickness of obstacle is to and the grooves thickness is tg

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Fig. 3

The boundary conditions applied in the system. At the inlet of the plate the Zou–He velocity boundary condition and at the outlet of the plate the open boundary condition was applied. Also, for the solid surfaces and the barriers along the path, the full bounce-back boundary condition was considered, and for the top boundary, the slip boundary condition was utilized.

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Fig. 6

The horizontal velocity contour for the lid-driven cavity problem using the lattice-Boltzmann method for Reynolds number equal to100: (a) the horizontal velocity contour and (b) the vertical velocity contour

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Fig. 7

A comparison between the present results and those of Ghia et al. [41] for (a) horizontal velocity and (b) vertical velocity in the lid-driven cavity problem

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Fig. 5

The full slip boundary condition scheme for the northern wall, with its unknown distribution function to determine the boundary condition, in this case, because of there is no momentum transfer perpendicular to the wall; as a result, the velocity gradient is also zero and therefore f4=f2, f7=f6, and f8=f5

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Fig. 4

The full bounce-back scheme, the outward-pointing arrows demonstrate the known distribution functions and the inward-pointing arrows are the unknown distribution functions. The unknown distribution functions are exactly equal to the known distribution functions in the direction of their symmetry toward the same node.

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Fig. 8

(a) The dimensionless thickness of the boundary layer over a flat plate as a function of the Reynolds number and comparing the Boltzmann results with the Blasius solution [3] and (b) and (c) the output of the horizontal and vertical velocity contour for flowing around a flat plate using the lattice-Boltzmann method

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Fig. 13

The streamlines inside the grooves for different values of tg/to: (a) 0.19, (b) 0.515, (c) 4, and (d) 9

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Fig. 9

(a) The friction drag, the pressure drag and the total drag coefficients for flow over a grooved substrate as a function of the grooves thickness to the obstacle thickness ratio tg/to for output Reynolds number of 2850 and constant ratio of H/Ly = 0.1592 and (b) the percentage of the total drag variation on a grooved surface from the similar smooth surface based on the grooves thickness to obstacle thickness ratio (tg/to) for output Reynolds number of 2850 and constant ratio of (H/Ly) = 0.1592

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Fig. 10

The horizontal velocity distribution for free flowing over a microgrooved surface for different  tg/to: (a) 0.19, (b) 0.151, (c) 4, and (d) 9

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Fig. 11

The vertical velocity distribution for free flowing over a microgrooved surface for different tg/to of (a) 0.19, (b) 0.151, (c) 4, and (d) 9

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Fig. 12

The pressure distribution for flow over a microgrooved surface with tg/to ratio of (a) 0.19, (b) 0.151, (c) 4, and (d) 9

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Fig. 16

The distribution of the pressure for a flow passing over a microgrooved surface for tg/to = 0.19, Reynolds number of 2850 and different values of H/Ly: (a) 0.318, (b) 0.0637, (c) 0.1911, and (d) 0.2548

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Fig. 17

The streamlines for a flow passing over a microgrooved surface with tg/to = 0.19 and H/Ly: (a) 0.0318, (b) 0.0637, (c) 0.1911, and (d) 0.02548 for the Reynolds number of 2850

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Fig. 14

(a) The changes in the mean friction, the pressure and the total drag coefficient as a function of (H/Ly) for output Reynolds number of 2850 and (tg/to) = 0.19 and (b) the percentage of total drag variation on a grooved surface compared to the similar smooth surface as a function of H/Ly for the Reynolds number of 2850 and a constant value of tg/to = 0.19

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Fig. 15

The distribution of horizontal velocity for a flow passing over a microgrooved surface for tg/to = 0.19, output Reynolds number of 2850 and different values of H/Ly: (a) 0.0637, (b) 0.0955, (c) 0.1911, and (d) 0.02548



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