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Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Evaluation of Cavitation Erosion Intensity in a Microscale Nozzle Using Eulerian–Lagrangian Bubble Dynamic Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Masoud Khojasteh-Manesh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University,
Tehran 1678815811, Iran
e-mail: m.khojastehmanesh@gmail.com

Miralam Mahdi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University,
Tehran 1678815811, Iran
e-mail: m.mahdi@sru.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 7, 2018; final manuscript received February 18, 2019; published online April 4, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Matevz Dular.

J. Fluids Eng 141(6), 061303 (Apr 04, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1597; doi: 10.1115/1.4042960 History: Received September 07, 2018; Revised February 18, 2019

In the present study, cavitation erosion is investigated by implementing an Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. Three-dimensional two-phase flow is simulated in a microscale nozzle using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) solver along with realizable kε turbulence model and Schnerr–Sauer cavitation model. The numerical results are in agreement with experimental observations. A modified form of Rayleigh–Plesset–Keller–Herring equation along with bubble motion equation is utilized to simulate bubble dynamics. Average values of mixture properties over bubble surface are used instead of bubble-center values in order to account for nonuniformities around the bubble. A one-way coupling method is used between Lagrangian analysis and RANS solution. The impact pressure resulted from bubble collapse is calculated for evaluation of erosion in diesel and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel in different situations. The results show that the initial size of the bubbles is an important factor for determining the intensity of erosion. So, the bubbles erosive power increases when their initial radius increases. It is also found that the intensity of erosion in diesel is much higher than that of biodiesel and this is because of the differences in fuels properties, especially in viscosity and vapor pressure. The effect of bubbles initial position on erosion intensity is also investigated in this study, and it is found that bubbles with the highest distance from sheet cavity termination have the highest contribution in erosion rate.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The hypothetical movement of the bubble within the nozzle

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Fig. 2

Details of the geometry: (a) schematic of the nozzle and (b) the computational mesh

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Fig. 3

Simulated results against experimental data of Winklhofer et al. [30]: (a) mass flow rate, (b) velocity profile at 53 μm from the hole entrance, and (c) vapor volume fraction

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Fig. 4

Simulation and experimental results of bubble oscillation; experimental results are given from Ref. [47]

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Fig. 5

The contour of vapor volume fraction at ΔP=72 bar: (a) diesel and (b) biodiesel

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Fig. 6

Bubbles initial position over nozzle surface

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Fig. 7

Variations of radius and ambient pressure for represented bubble; ΔP=72 bar and R0=5 μm

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Fig. 8

Bubble trajectory inside channel for diesel fuel at ΔP=72 bar and R0=5 μm

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Fig. 9

Velocity contour and velocity vector for diesel fuel at ΔP=72 bar

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Fig. 10

Variations of bubble parameters: (a) bubble wall velocity and (b) bubble internal pressure

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Fig. 11

Intensity of cavitation erosion over nuzzle surface for various initial radii

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Fig. 12

Spatial distribution of the origin of emitted pressure waves inside the channel: (a) R0=1 μm, (b) R0=2 μm, (c) R0=3 μm, (d) R0=4 μm, and (e) R0=5 μm

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Fig. 13

Comparisons on the flow characteristics between diesel and biodiesel: (a) mass flow rate and (b) Reynolds number against cavitation number

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Fig. 14

The intensity of erosion for diesel and biodiesel at ΔP=72 bar

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Fig. 15

Bubbles initial position over nozzle surface

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Fig. 16

Intensity of erosion in equal cavity length condition

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Fig. 17

The intensity of erosion based on bubbles initial position: (a) diesel and (b) biodiesel

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Fig. 18

Spatial distribution of the origin of emitted pressure waves inside the channel based on bubbles initial position

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