Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Determination of the Drop Size During Air-Blast Atomization

[+] Author and Article Information
T.-W. Lee, J. E. Park

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
SEMTE Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ 85287-6106

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 20, 2018; final manuscript received April 19, 2019; published online May 23, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Strasser.

J. Fluids Eng 141(12), 121301 (May 23, 2019) (6 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1783; doi: 10.1115/1.4043592 History: Received November 20, 2018; Revised April 19, 2019

We have used the integral form of the conservation equations, to find a cubic formula for the drop size during in liquid sprays in coflow of air (air-blast atomization). Similar to our previous work, the energy balance dictates that the initial kinetic energy of the gas and injected liquid will be distributed into the final surface tension energy, kinetic energy of the gas and droplets, and viscous dissipation. Using this approach, the drop size can be determined based on the basic injection and fluid parameters for “air-blast” atomization, where the injected liquid is atomized by high-speed coflow of air. The viscous dissipation term is estimated using appropriate velocity and length scales of liquid–air coflow breakup. The mass and energy balances for the spray flows render to an expression that relates the drop size to all of the relevant parameters, including the gas- and liquid-phase velocities and fluid properties. The results agree well with experimental data and correlations for the drop size. The solution also provides for drop size–velocity cross-correlation, leading to computed drop size distributions based on the gas-phase velocity distribution. This approach can be used in the estimation of the drop size for practical sprays and also as a primary atomization module in computational simulations of air-blast atomization over a wide range of injection and fluid conditions, the only caveat being that a parameter to account for the viscous dissipation needs to be calibrated with a minimal set of observational data.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Basic geometry for the liquid jet atomization in a coflow of air, (b) Nukiyama–Tanasawa atomizer [6], and (c) Lorenzetto–Lefebvre injector [4]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of the current theory (Eq. (7)) with various experimental correlations. Symbols: correlation by Jasuja [5] (circle); Nukiyama and Tanasawa [6] (diamond); and Rizk and Lefebvre [21] (square). Lines: analytical result of Lasheras et al. [2] (dotted line); current work, K = 1.67 × 10−7 (solid); and current work, K = 3.4 × 10−7 (broken).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SMD plotted as a function of uin, at various gas densities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effect of viscosity on SMD. Symbols: experimental data of Lorenzetto and Lefebvre [4]. Lines: current theory (solid line); Nukiyama–Tanasawa correlation [6] (broken).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison with drop size measured (symbols) at various radial locations [20] with current theory (solid line). The broken line is the measured velocity [20].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Drop size–velocity relationship using Eq. (7)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of the drop size distribution with experimental data [7]



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