Research Papers: Techniques and Procedures

The Design and Validation of a Thermal Boundary Layer Wall Plate

[+] Author and Article Information
Drummond Biles

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH 03824
e-mail: dep42@wildcats.unh.edu

Alireza Ebadi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham NH 03824
e-mail: Alireza.Ebadi@unh.edu

Michael P. Allard

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH 03824
e-mail: mpw3@wildcats.unh.edu

Christopher M. White

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH 03824
e-mail: chris.white@unh.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 14, 2018; final manuscript received May 9, 2019; published online June 7, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Devesh Ranjan.

J. Fluids Eng 141(12), 121403 (Jun 07, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1621; doi: 10.1115/1.4043773 History: Received September 14, 2018; Revised May 09, 2019

A feedback controlled thermal wall plate designed to investigate thermal boundary layer flows is described and validated. The unique capabilities of the design are the ability to modify the thermal boundary conditions in a variety of ways or to hold the wall-temperature fixed even when the flow above the wall is unsteady and strongly three-dimensional. These capabilities allow for the generation and study of thermal transport in nonequilibrium boundary layer flows driven by different perturbations and of varying complexity. The thermal wall plate and the experimental facility in which the thermal wall plate is installed are first described. The wall-plate is then validated in a zero-pressure-gradient (ZPG) boundary layer flow for conditions of a uniform wall temperature and a temperature step. It is then shown that the wall temperature can be held constant even when a hemisphere body is placed on the wall that produces large localized variations in the convective heat transfer coefficient. Last, since the thermal wall plate is intended to support the study of thermal transport in a variety of nonequilibrium boundary layer flow, several possible experimental configurations are presented and described.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental facility. Air enters the facility from right-to-left. The primary components include as follows: (1) freestream heaters, (2) seeding manifold, (3) turbulence management section, (4) contraction, (5) thermal wall-plate located on the bottom wall of the test-section, (6) rotor-stator assembly, (7) diffuser, and (8) centrifugal fan.

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Fig. 2

(a) Probability density function (PDF) of freestream temperature measured in the wind tunnel over a 2 h period. The vertical green line represents the setpoint temperature and the vertical red line represents the measured mean temperature with a confidence interval of 99% and (b) Schematic of the seeding manifold used for particle image velocimetry (PIV).

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Fig. 3

(a) Solid model schematic of the thermal wall-plate and (b) detailed schematic of a section of the thermal wall-plate: right tilted 45 deg lines denotes the heated wall plate, left tilted 45 deg lines shows the surrounding layer of calcium silicate insulation and the hash marked section represents the copolymer acetal frame which positions all components. Three evenly spaced embedded thermocouples are located along line AA.

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Fig. 4

A diagram detailing the wall plate heater controller circuit. (1) designates the embedded thermocouples, which are fed to an amplifier (2), whose signal is then fed to a LabVIEW program (3), which determines if the heaters should be in an off or on position and sends a final signal to an SCR circuit (4), which communicates to the thermal wallplate heaters.

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Fig. 5

Schematic of rotor-stator design, left shows the rotor, shown in the middle is the stator, and the right plot depicts a freestream velocity time series taken with a pitot-static tube for a quarter revolution of the rotor-stator mechanism

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Fig. 6

(a) Representative ensemble-averaged IR image of plate #5 for Tset = 40 °C and (b) spanwise profile of streamwise averaged temperature from figure (a)

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Fig. 7

Wall-normal profiles of mean streamwise velocity at Reθ = 1527 with thermal wall plate on (×) and off (◁) plotted in (a) outer-coordinates and (b) inner-coordinates. The solid lines denote the data from Ref. [45] at a similar Re.

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Fig. 8

Wall-normal profiles of mean temperature plotted in (a) outer-coordinates and (b) inner-coordinates. Shading denotes a ±5% variance in computed uτ value. The dotted line denotes the data from Araya and Castillo [30] at Reθ = 2290.

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Fig. 9

(a) Representative ensemble-averaged IR image of temperature step. The top-plate is unheated where T =25 °C and the bottom plate is set to T =40 °C. The flow is from top-to-bottom and (b) The streamwise profile of spanwise averaged temperature.

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Fig. 10

Wall-normal profiles of mean temperature after thermal step. Respective plates heated for each profiles is detailed within the legend of Fig. 10(a). Plotted in (a) inner-coordinates using St (Eq. (4)), and (b) modified inner-coordinates using StT (Eq. (5)), subsequent profiles are offset by Θ+ = 6 for visual clarity. The dotted line denotes the data from Araya and Castillo [30] at Reθ = 2290.

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Fig. 11

Spatial temperature distributions located downstream of a hemisphere for four values of ReD. The streamwise and spanwise positions have been normalized by the hemisphere diameter D =3 cm.

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Fig. 12

Two plane view of cartoon depiction for resulting flow field from hemisphere perturbation. The XZ-plane provides a birds eye view of the developing vortex wake, and the YZ-plane provides a view of vortex wake downstream of the hemisphere and the resulting wall temperature.

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Fig. 13

Spanwise temperature profiles taken from the center of the IR images at a downstream position where the number of controller is detailed within the figure legend. For clarity of identification of profiles, data points are plotted for every respective fifth data point within the spanwise profile of the IR image. Shaded region denotes a 95% confidence interval for each profile.



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