Research Papers: Techniques and Procedures

Comparison of DDES and URANS for Unsteady Tip Leakage Flow in an Axial Compressor Rotor

[+] Author and Article Information
Yangwei Liu

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
School of Energy and Power Engineering;
Collaborative Innovation Center of
Advanced Aero-Engine,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: liuyangwei@126.com

Luyang Zhong

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: buaa.zly@qq.com

Lipeng Lu

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
School of Energy and Power Engineering;
Collaborative Innovation Center of
Advanced Aero-Engine,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: lulp@buaa.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 17, 2018; final manuscript received April 28, 2019; published online June 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Sergio Pirozzoli.

J. Fluids Eng 141(12), 121405 (Jun 17, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1843; doi: 10.1115/1.4043774 History: Received December 17, 2018; Revised April 28, 2019

Tip leakage vortex (TLV) has a large impact on compressor performance and should be accurately predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. New approaches of turbulence modeling, such as delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES), have been proposed, the computational resources of which can be reduced much more than for large eddy simulation (LES). In this paper, the numerical simulations of the rotor in a low-speed large-scale axial compressor based on DDES and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) are performed, thus improving our understanding of the TLV dynamic mechanisms and discrepancy of these two methods. We compared the influence of different time steps in the URANS simulation. The widely used large time-step makes the unsteadiness extremely weak. The small time-step shows a better result close to DDES. The time-step scale is related to the URANS unsteadiness and should be carefully selected. In the time-averaged flow, the TLV in DDES dissipates faster, which has a more similar structure to the experiment. Then, the time-averaged and instantaneous results are compared to divide the TLV into three parts. URANS cannot give the loss of stability and evolution details of TLV. The fluctuation velocity spectra show that the amplitude of high frequencies becomes obvious downstream from the TLV, where it becomes unstable. Last, the anisotropy of the Reynolds stress of these two methods is analyzed through the Lumley triangle to see the distinction between the methods and obtain the Reynolds stress. The results indicate that the TLV latter part in DDES is anisotropic, while in URANS it is isotropic.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Denton, J. D. , 1993, “ Loss Mechanisms in Turbomachines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(4), pp. 621–656. [CrossRef]
Wisler, D. C. , 1985, “ Loss Reduction in Axial-Flow Compressors Through Low-Speed Model Testing,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 107(2), pp. 354–363. [CrossRef]
Taylor, J. V. , and Miller, R. J. , 2016, “ Competing Three-Dimensional Mechanisms in Compressor Flows,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Yan, H. , Lu, L. , and Li, Q. , 2017, “ Investigation of Vortical Structures and Turbulence Characteristics in Corner Separation in a Linear Compressor Cascade Using DDES,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 139(2), p. 021107. [CrossRef]
Wu, Y. , Wu, J. , Zhang, G. , and Chu, W. , 2014, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics Near Casing in an Axial Flow Compressor Rotor at Stable and Stall Inception Conditions,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(11), p. 111106. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , Du, J. , Li, Z. , and Lin, F. , 2018, “ Stability Enhancement With Self-Recirculating Injection in Axial Flow Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 140(7), p. 071001. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Tang, Y. , Liu, B. , and Lu, L. , 2019, “ An Exponential Decay Model for the Deterministic Correlations in Axial Compressors,” ASME. J. Turbomach., 141(2), p. 021005. [CrossRef]
Day, I. J. , 2015, “ Stall, Surge, and 75 Years of Research,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(1), p. 011001. [CrossRef]
Lee, K. B. , Wilson, M. , and Vahdati, M. , 2017, “ Numerical Study on Aeroelastic Instability for a Low-Speed Fan,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(7), p. 071004. [CrossRef]
Wisler, D. C. , 1985, Advanced Compressor and Fan Systems, GE Aircraft Engine Business Group Publication, Cincinnati, OH.
Vo, H. D. , Tan, C. S. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 2008, “ Criteria for Spike Initiated Rotating Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(1), p. 011023. [CrossRef]
Chen, J. P. , Hathaway, M. D. , and Herrick, G. P. , 2008, “ Prestall Behavior of a Transonic Axial Compressor Stage Via Time-Accurate Numerical Simulation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(4), p. 041014. [CrossRef]
Pullan, G. , Young, A. M. , Day, I. J. , Greitzer, E. M. , and Spakovszky, Z. S. , 2015, “ Origins and Structure of Spike-Type Rotating Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051007. [CrossRef]
Storer, J. A. , and Cumpsty, N. A. , 1991, “ Tip Leakage Flow in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113(2), pp. 252–259. [CrossRef]
Lakshminarayana, B. , Zaccaria, M. , and Marathe, B. , 1995, “ The Structure of Tip Clearance Flow in Axial Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117(3), pp. 336–347. [CrossRef]
Furukawa, M. , Inoue, M. , Saiki, K. , and Yamada, K. , 1999, “ The Role of Tip Leakage Vortex Breakdown in Compressor Rotor Aerodynamics,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121(3), pp. 469–480. [CrossRef]
Xie, Z. , Liu, Y. , Liu, X. , Sun, D. , Lu, L. , and Sun, X. , 2018, “ Computational Model for Stall Inception and Nonlinear Evolution in Axial Flow Compressors,” J. Propul. Power, 34(3), pp. 720–729. [CrossRef]
Miorini, R. L. , Wu, H. , and Katz, J. , 2012, “ The Internal Structure of the Tip Leakage Vortex Within the Rotor of an Axial Waterjet Pump,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(3), p. 031018. [CrossRef]
Vo, H. D. , 2010, “ Role of Tip Clearance Flow in Rotating Instabilities and Nonsynchronous Vibrations,” J. Propul. Power, 26(3), pp. 556–561. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Yu, X. , and Liu, B. , 2008, “ Turbulence Models Assessment for Large-Scale Tip Vortices in an Axial Compressor Rotor,” J. Propul. Power, 24(1), pp. 15–25. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Yan, H. , Liu, Y. , Lu, L. , and Li, Q. , 2016, “ Numerical Study of Corner Separation in a Linear Compressor Cascade Using Various Turbulence Models,” Chin. J. Aeronaut., 29(3), pp. 639–652. [CrossRef]
Xie, Z. , Liu, Y. , Liu, X. , Lu, L. , and Sun, X. , 2019, “ Effect of RANS Method on the Stall Onset Prediction by an Eigenvalue Approach,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 141(3), p. 031401. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Lu, L. , Fang, L. , and Gao, F. , 2011, “ Modification of Spalart-Allmaras Model With Consideration of Turbulence Energy Backscatter Using Velocity Helicity,” Phys. Lett. A, 375(24), pp. 2377–2381. [CrossRef]
Lee, K. B. , Wilson, M. , and Vahdati, M. , 2018, “ Validation of a Numerical Model for Predicting Stalled Flows in a Low-Speed Fan—Part I: Modification of Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model,” ASME J. Turbomach., 140(5), p. 051008. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. , Pullan, G. , Hall, C. A. , Grewe, R. P. , Wilson, M. J. , and Gunn, E. , 2019, “ Stall Inception in Low Pressure Ratio Fans,” ASME J. Turbomach., 141(7), p. 071005. [CrossRef]
Tang, Y. , Liu, Y. , and Lu, L. , 2018, “ Solidity Effect on Corner Separation and Its Control in a High-Speed Low Aspect Ratio Compressor Cascade,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 142, pp. 304–321. [CrossRef]
Fang, L. , Sun, X. , and Liu, Y. , 2016, “ A Criterion of Orthogonality on the Assumption and Restrictions in Subgrid-Scale Modelling of Turbulence,” Phys. Lett. A, 380(47), pp. 3988–3992. [CrossRef]
Fang, L. , and Ge, M. W. , 2017, “ Mathematical Constraints in Multiscale Subgrid-Scale Modeling of Nonlinear Systems,” Chin. Phys. Lett., 34(3), p. 030501. [CrossRef]
Fang, L. , Bos, W. J. , Shao, L. , and Bertoglio, J. P. , 2012, “ Time Reversibility of Navier–Stokes Turbulence and Its Implication for Subgrid Scale Models,” J. Turbul., 13(3), pp. 1–14.
Fang, L. , Shao, L. , Bertoglio, J. P. , Cui, G. X. , Xu, C. X. , and Zhang, Z. S. , 2009, “ An Improved Velocity Increment Model Based on Kolmogorov Equation of Filtered Velocity,” Phys. Fluids, 21(6), p. 065108. [CrossRef]
Xu, J. L. , Song, Y. F. , Zhang, Y. , Ji, S. C. , and Bai, J. Q. , 2016, “ A Turbulence Characteristic Length Scale for Compressible Flows,” J. Turbul., 17(9), pp. 900–911. [CrossRef]
Fang, L. , Zhu, Y. , Liu, Y. , and Lu, L. , 2015, “ Spectral Non-Equilibrium Property in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence and Its Implication in Subgrid-Scale Modeling,” Phys. Lett. A, 379(38), pp. 2331–2336. [CrossRef]
Gao, Y. , Liu, Y. , Zhong, L. , Hou, J. , and Lu, L. , 2016, “ Study of the Standard k-ε Model for Tip Leakage Flow in an Axial Compressor Rotor,” Int. J. Turbo. Jet-Engines, 33(4), pp. 353–360. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Yan, H. , Fang, L. , Lu, L. , Li, Q. , and Shao, L. , 2016, “ Modified k-ω Model Using Kinematic Vorticity for Corner Separation in Compressor Cascade,” China-Technol. Sci., 59(5), pp. 795–806. [CrossRef]
Xu, J. , Zhang, Y. , and Bai, J. , 2015, “ One-Equation Turbulence Model Based on Extended Bradshaw Assumption,” AIAA J., 53(6), pp. 1433–1441. [CrossRef]
Scillitoe, A. D. , Tucker, P. G. , and Adami, P. , 2016, “ Numerical Investigation of Three-Dimensional Separation in an Axial Flow Compressor: The Influence of Freestream Turbulence Intensity and Endwall Boundary Layer State,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(2), p. 021011. [CrossRef]
Memory, C. L. , Chen, J. P. , and Bons, J. P. , 2016, “ Implicit Large Eddy Simulation of a Stalled Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoil,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(7), p. 071008. [CrossRef]
Xu, J. , Li, M. , Zhang, Y. , and Chen, L. , 2016, “ Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Channel Flow at High Reynolds Number Using the Von Karman Length Scale,” Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 30(6), pp. 565–577. [CrossRef]
Hu, S. , Zhou, C. , Xia, Z. , and Chen, S. , 2017, “ Large Eddy Simulation and CDNS Investigation of T106C Low-Pressure Turbine,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 140(1), p. 011108. [CrossRef]
Lin, D. , Su, X. , and Yuan, X. , 2018, “ DDES Analysis of the Wake Vortex Related Unsteadiness and Losses in the Environment of a High-Pressure Turbine Stage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 140(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z. N. , and Yuan, X. , 2013, “ Unsteady Mechanism of Compressor Corner Separation Over a Range of Incidence Based on Hybrid LES/RANS,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95300.
Boudet, J. , Cahuzac, A. , Kausche, P. , and Jacob, M. C. , 2015, “ Zonal Large-Eddy Simulation of a Fan Tip-Clearance Flow, With Evidence of Vortex Wandering,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(6), p. 061001. [CrossRef]
Georgiadis, N. J. , Rizzetta, D. P. , and Fureby, C. , 2010, “ Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research,” AIAA J., 48(8), pp. 1772–1784. [CrossRef]
Spalart, P. R. , Jou, W. H. , Strelets, M. , and Allmaras, S. R. , 1997, “ Comments on the Feasibility of LES for Wings, and on a Hybrid RANS/LES Approach,” Advances in DNS/LES, Vol. 1, Greyden Press, Columbus, OH, pp. 4–8.
Spalart, P. R. , Deck, S. , Shur, M. L. , Squires, K. D. , Strelets, M. K. , and Travin, A. , 2006, “ A New Version of Detached-Eddy Simulation, Resistant to Ambiguous Grid Densities,” Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 20(3), pp. 181–195. [CrossRef]
Du, H. , Yu, X. , Zhang, Z. , and Liu, B. , 2013, “ Relationship Between the Flow Blockage of Tip Leakage Vortex and Its Evolutionary Procedures Inside the Rotor Passage of a Subsonic Axial Compressor,” J. Therm. Sci., 22(6), pp. 522–531. [CrossRef]
Wernet, M. P. , 2000, “ Development of Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry for Use in Turbomachinery,” Exp. Fluids, 28(2), pp. 97–115. [CrossRef]
Menter, F. R. , 1994, “ Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications,” AIAA J., 32(8), pp. 1598–1605. [CrossRef]
Menter, F. R. , Kuntz, M. , and Langtry, R. , 2003, “ Ten Years of Industrial Experience With the SST Turbulence Model,” Turbulence Heat Mass Transfer 4, K. Hanjalic , Y. Nagano , and M. Tummers , eds., Begell House, Redding, CT, pp. 625–632.
Yan, H. , Liu, Y. , Li, Q. , and Lu, L. , 2018, “ Turbulence Characteristics in Corner Separation in a Highly Loaded Linear Compressor Cascade,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol, 75, pp. 139–154. [CrossRef]
ANSYS, 2009, ANSYS FLUENT 12.0: User's Guide, Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
Tyacke, J. C. , and Tucker, P. G. , 2015, “ Future Use of Large Eddy Simulation in Aero‐Engines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(8), p. 081005. [CrossRef]
Scillitoe, A. D. , Tucker, P. G. , and Adami, P. , 2015, “ Evaluation of RANS and ZDES Methods for the Prediction of Three-Dimensional Separation in Axial Flow Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43975.
Lumley, J. L. , 1979, “ Computational Modeling of Turbulent Flows,” Adv. Appl. Mech., 18, pp. 123–176. [CrossRef]
Spencer, A. J. M. , 1971, “ Theory of Invariants,” Continuum Phys., 1, pp. 239–352.
Hamilton, N. , and Cal, R. B. , 2015, “ Anisotropy of the Reynolds Stress Tensor in the Wakes of Wind Turbine Arrays in Cartesian Arrangements With Counter-Rotating Rotors,” Phys. Fluids, 27(1), p. 015102. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Layout of SPIV measurement cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Point distribution of blade to blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Computation domain and mesh of the rotor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Fluctuating axial velocity at TLV core of 70% chord length: (a) DDES (Δt = 1/1000 blade passing time), (b) URANS (Δt = 1/50 blade passing time), and (c) URANS (Δt = 1/1000 blade passing time)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Total pressure coefficient and exit flow angle at design condition (Z/Ca = 1.5): (a) total pressure coefficient and (b) exit flow angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Time-averaged streamwise vorticity at design condition: (a) EXP, (b) DDES, and (c) URANS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Time-averaged streamwise vorticity at near stall condition: (a) EXP, (b) DDES, and (c) URANS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Circumferentially averaged static pressure coefficient (Z/Ca = 0.8)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The Q=2×105 iso-surface of time-averaged cases: (a) DDES‐DE, (b) URANS‐DE, (c) DDES‐NS, and (d) URANS‐NS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Time-averaged streamlines of near stall condition at blade tip by DDES

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The Q=5×106 iso-surface at different instantaneous case in design condition by DDES: (a) T1, (b) T2, (c) T3, and (d) T4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The Q=5×106 iso-surface at different instantaneous case in near stall condition by DDES: (a) T1, (b) T2, (c) T3, and (d) T4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The Q iso-surface of instantaneous cases by URANS: (a) design condition, Q = 5 × 106, (b) design condition, Q = 5 × 105, (c) near stall condition, Q = 5 × 106, and (d) near stall condition, Q = 5 × 105

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Time-averaged and instantaneous vorticity and Q contours of the TLV: (a) time‐averaged results and (b) instantaneous results. In the figure ①, ②, and ③ means the phases of formation, becoming unstable and dissipation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Fluctuating axial velocity frequency spectra along the TLV core: (a) DDES‐DE, (b) DDES‐NS, (c) URANS‐DE, and (d) URANS‐NS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Turbulent kinetic energy of different simulations: (a) EXP, (b) DDES, and (c) URANS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

η and ξ on the cross section at near stall condition: (a) η‐DDES, (b) η‐URANS, (c) ξ‐DDES, and (d) ξ‐URANS



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In