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Research Papers: Techniques and Procedures

Comparison of DDES and URANS for Unsteady Tip Leakage Flow in an Axial Compressor Rotor

[+] Author and Article Information
Yangwei Liu

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
Aero-Thermodynamics,
School of Energy and Power Engineering;
Collaborative Innovation Center of
Advanced Aero-Engine,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: liuyangwei@126.com

Luyang Zhong

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
Aero-Thermodynamics,
School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: buaa.zly@qq.com

Lipeng Lu

National Key Laboratory of Science and
Technology on Aero-Engine
Aero-Thermodynamics,
School of Energy and Power Engineering;
Collaborative Innovation Center of
Advanced Aero-Engine,
Beihang University,
Beijing 100191, China
e-mail: lulp@buaa.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 17, 2018; final manuscript received April 28, 2019; published online June 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Sergio Pirozzoli.

J. Fluids Eng 141(12), 121405 (Jun 17, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1843; doi: 10.1115/1.4043774 History: Received December 17, 2018; Revised April 28, 2019

Tip leakage vortex (TLV) has a large impact on compressor performance and should be accurately predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. New approaches of turbulence modeling, such as delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES), have been proposed, the computational resources of which can be reduced much more than for large eddy simulation (LES). In this paper, the numerical simulations of the rotor in a low-speed large-scale axial compressor based on DDES and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) are performed, thus improving our understanding of the TLV dynamic mechanisms and discrepancy of these two methods. We compared the influence of different time steps in the URANS simulation. The widely used large time-step makes the unsteadiness extremely weak. The small time-step shows a better result close to DDES. The time-step scale is related to the URANS unsteadiness and should be carefully selected. In the time-averaged flow, the TLV in DDES dissipates faster, which has a more similar structure to the experiment. Then, the time-averaged and instantaneous results are compared to divide the TLV into three parts. URANS cannot give the loss of stability and evolution details of TLV. The fluctuation velocity spectra show that the amplitude of high frequencies becomes obvious downstream from the TLV, where it becomes unstable. Last, the anisotropy of the Reynolds stress of these two methods is analyzed through the Lumley triangle to see the distinction between the methods and obtain the Reynolds stress. The results indicate that the TLV latter part in DDES is anisotropic, while in URANS it is isotropic.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Layout of SPIV measurement cross section

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Fig. 2

Point distribution of blade to blade

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Fig. 3

Computation domain and mesh of the rotor

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Fig. 4

Fluctuating axial velocity at TLV core of 70% chord length: (a) DDES (Δt = 1/1000 blade passing time), (b) URANS (Δt = 1/50 blade passing time), and (c) URANS (Δt = 1/1000 blade passing time)

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Fig. 5

Total pressure coefficient and exit flow angle at design condition (Z/Ca = 1.5): (a) total pressure coefficient and (b) exit flow angle

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Fig. 6

Time-averaged streamwise vorticity at design condition: (a) EXP, (b) DDES, and (c) URANS

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Fig. 7

Time-averaged streamwise vorticity at near stall condition: (a) EXP, (b) DDES, and (c) URANS

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Fig. 8

Circumferentially averaged static pressure coefficient (Z/Ca = 0.8)

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Fig. 9

The Q=2×105 iso-surface of time-averaged cases: (a) DDES‐DE, (b) URANS‐DE, (c) DDES‐NS, and (d) URANS‐NS

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Fig. 10

Time-averaged streamlines of near stall condition at blade tip by DDES

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Fig. 11

The Q=5×106 iso-surface at different instantaneous case in design condition by DDES: (a) T1, (b) T2, (c) T3, and (d) T4

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Fig. 12

The Q=5×106 iso-surface at different instantaneous case in near stall condition by DDES: (a) T1, (b) T2, (c) T3, and (d) T4

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Fig. 13

The Q iso-surface of instantaneous cases by URANS: (a) design condition, Q = 5 × 106, (b) design condition, Q = 5 × 105, (c) near stall condition, Q = 5 × 106, and (d) near stall condition, Q = 5 × 105

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Fig. 14

Time-averaged and instantaneous vorticity and Q contours of the TLV: (a) time‐averaged results and (b) instantaneous results. In the figure ①, ②, and ③ means the phases of formation, becoming unstable and dissipation.

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Fig. 15

Fluctuating axial velocity frequency spectra along the TLV core: (a) DDES‐DE, (b) DDES‐NS, (c) URANS‐DE, and (d) URANS‐NS

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Fig. 16

Turbulent kinetic energy of different simulations: (a) EXP, (b) DDES, and (c) URANS

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Fig. 17

η and ξ on the cross section at near stall condition: (a) η‐DDES, (b) η‐URANS, (c) ξ‐DDES, and (d) ξ‐URANS

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