0
Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Investigation of Transition Delay by Dynamic Surface Deformation

[+] Author and Article Information
Donald P. Rizzetta

Aerodynamic Technology Branch,
Aerospace Systems Directorate,
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7512
e-mail: donald.rizzetta@us.af.mil

Miguel R. Visbal

Aerodynamic Technology Branch,
Aerospace Systems Directorate,
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7512
e-mail: miguel.visbal@us.af.mil

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 12, 2018; final manuscript received May 21, 2019; published online June 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Daniel Livescu.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Fluids Eng 141(12), 121203 (Jun 17, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1832; doi: 10.1115/1.4043859 History: Received December 12, 2018; Revised May 21, 2019

Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate control of transition on a flat plate by means of local dynamic surface deformation. The configuration and flow conditions are similar to a previous computation which simulated transition mitigation. Physically, the surface modification may be produced by piezoelectrically driven actuators located below a compliant aerodynamic surface, which have been employed experimentally. One actuator is located in the upstream plate region and oscillated at the most unstable frequency of 250 Hz to develop disturbances representing Tollmien–Schlichting instabilities. A controlling actuator is placed downstream and oscillated at the same frequency, but with an appropriate phase shift and modified amplitude to decrease disturbance growth and delay transition. While the downstream controlling actuator is two-dimensional (spanwise invariant), several forms of upstream disturbances were considered. These included disturbances which were strictly two-dimensional, those which were modulated in amplitude and those which had a spanwise variation of the temporal phase shift. Direct numerical simulations were obtained by solution of the three-dimensional compressible Navier–Stokes equations, utilizing a high-fidelity computational scheme and an implicit time-marching approach. A previously devised empirical process was applied for determining the optimal parameters of the controlling actuator. Results of the simulations are described, features of the flowfields elucidated, and comparisons made between solutions of the uncontrolled and controlled cases for the respective incoming disturbances. It is found that the disturbance growth is mitigated and the transition is delayed for all forms of the upstream perturbations, substantially reducing the skin friction.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Schlichting, H. , and Gersten, K. , 2001, Boundary-Layer Theory, 8th ed., Springer-Verlag, New York.
Gaster, M. , 1962, “ A Note on the Relation Between Temporally-Increasing and Spatially-Increasing Disturbances in Hydrodynamic Stability,” J. Fluid Mech., 14(2), pp. 222–224. [CrossRef]
Michalke, A. , 1964, “ On the Inviscid Instability of the Hyperbolictangent Velocity Profile,” J. Fluid Mech., 19(4), pp. 543–556. [CrossRef]
Gaster, M. , 1965, “ On the Generation of Spatially Growing Waves in a Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 22(3), pp. 433–441. [CrossRef]
Wehrmann, O. H. , 1965, “ Tollmien-Schlichtling Waves Under the Influence of a Flexible Wall,” Phys. Fluids, 8(7), p. 1389. [CrossRef]
Jordinson, R. , 1970, “ The Flat Plate Boundary Layer—Part 1: Numerical Integration of the Orr-Sommerfeld Equation,” J. Fluid Mech., 43(4), pp. 801–811. [CrossRef]
Liepmann, H. W. , Brown, G. L. , and Nosenchuck, D. M. , 1982, “ Control of Laminar-Instability Waves Using a New Technique,” J. Fluid Mech., 118(1), pp. 187–200. [CrossRef]
Liepmann, H. W. , and Nosenchuck, D. M. , 1982, “ Active Control of Laminar-Turbulent Transition,” J. Fluid Mech., 118(1), pp. 201–204. [CrossRef]
Thomas, S. W. , 1983, “ The Control of Boundary-Layer Transition Using a Wave-Superposition Principle,” J. Fluid Mech., 137(1), pp. 233–250. [CrossRef]
Kachanov, Y. S. , 1994, “ Physical Mechanisms of Laminar-Boundary-Layer Transition,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 26(1), pp. 411–482. [CrossRef]
Joslin, R. D. , Nicolaides, R. A. , Erlebacher, G. , Hussaini, M. Y. , and Gunzburger, M. D. , 1995, “ Active Control of Boundary-Layer Instabilities: Use of Sensors and Spectral Controller,” AIAA J., 33(8), pp. 1521–1523. [CrossRef]
Joslin, R. D. , Erlebacher, G. , and Hussaini, M. Y. , 1996, “ Active Control of Instabilities in Laminar Boundary Layers-Overview and Concept Validation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 118(3), pp. 494–497. [CrossRef]
Sturzebecher, D. , and Nitsche, W. , 2003, “ Active Cancellation of Tollmien-Schlichtling Instabilities on a Wing Using Multi-Channel Sensor Actuator Systems,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 24(4), pp. 572–583. [CrossRef]
Grundmann, S. , and Tropea, C. , 2007, “ Experimental Transition Delay Using Glow-Discharge Plasma Actuators,” Exp. Fluids, 42(4), pp. 653–657. [CrossRef]
Grundmann, S. , and Tropea, C. , 2008, “ Active Cancellation of Artificially Introduced Tollmien-Schlichtling Waves Using Plasma Actuators,” Exp. Fluids, 44(5), pp. 795–806. [CrossRef]
Grundmann, S. , and Tropea, C. , 2009, “ Experimental Damping of Boundary-Layer Oscillations Using DBD Plasma Actuators,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 30(3), pp. 394–402. [CrossRef]
Losse, N. R. , King, R. , Zengl, M. , Rist, M. , and Noack, B. R. , 2011, “ Control of Tollmien-Schlichtling Instabilities by Finite Distributed Wall Actuation,” Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 25(1–4), pp. 167–178. [CrossRef]
Duchmann, A. , Kurz, A. , Widmann, A. , Grundmann, S. , and Tropea, C. , 2012, “ Characterization of Tollmien-Schlichting Wave Damping by DBD Plasma Actuators Using Phase-Locked PIV,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-0903.
Kurz, A. , Tropea, C. , Grundmann, S. , Forte, M. , Vermeersch, O. , Seraudie, A. , Arnal, D. , Goldin, N. , and King, R. , 2012, “ Transition Delay Using DBD Plasma Actuators in Direct Frequency Mode,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-2945.
Kurz, A. , Tropea, C. , Grundmann, S. , Goldin, N. , and King, R. , 2012, “ Development of Active Wave Cancellation Using DBD Plasma Actuators for in-Flight Transition Control,” AIAA Paper No. 2012-2949.
Widmann, A. , Duchmann, A. , Kurz, A. , Grundmann, S. , and Tropea, C. , 2012, “ Measuring Tollmien-Schlichting Waves Using phased-Averaged Particle Image Velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids, 53(3), pp. 707–715. [CrossRef]
Kotsonis, M. , Giepman, R. , Hulshoff, S. , and Veldhuis, L. , 2013, “ Numerical Study of the Control of Tollmien-Schlichting Waves Using Plasma Actuators,” AIAA J., 51(10), pp. 2353–2364. [CrossRef]
Barckmann, K. , Tropea, C. , and Grundmann, S. , 2015, “ Attenuation of tollmien-Schlichtling Waves Using Plasma Actuator Vortex Generators,” AIAA J., 55(5), pp. 1384–1388. [CrossRef]
Amitay, M. , Tuna, B. A. , and Dell'Orso, H. , 2016, “ Identification and Mitigation of T-S Waves Using Localized Dynamic Surface Modification,” Phys. Fluids, 28(6), p. 064103. [CrossRef]
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2018, “ Direct Numerical Simulation of Transition Control Via Local Dynamic Surface Modification,” AIAA Paper No. 2018-3211.
Beam, R. , and Warming, R. , 1978, “ An Implicit Factored Scheme for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations,” AIAA J., 16(4), pp. 393–402. [CrossRef]
Gordnier, R. E. , and Visbal, M. R. , 1993, “ Numerical Simulation of Delta-Wing Roll,” AIAA Paper No. 93-0554.
Jameson, A. , Schmidt, W. , and Turkel, E. , 1981, “ Numerical Solutions of the Euler Equations by Finite Volume Methods Using Runge-Kutta Time Stepping Schemes,” AIAA Paper No. 81-1259.
Pulliam, T. H. , and Chaussee, D. S. , 1981, “ A Diagonal Form of an Implicit Approximate-Factorization Algorithm,” J. Comput. Phys., 39(2), pp. 347–363. [CrossRef]
Lele, S. A. , 1992, “ Compact Finite Difference Schemes With Spectral-Like Resolution,” J. Comput. Phys., 103(1), pp. 16–42. [CrossRef]
Visbal, M. R. , and Gaitonde, D. V. , 1999, “ High-Order-Accurate Methods for Complex Unsteady Subsonic Flows,” AIAA J., 37(10), pp. 1231–1239. [CrossRef]
Gaitonde, D. , Shang, J. S. , and Young, J. L. , 1997, “ Practical Aspects of High-Order Accurate Finite-Volume Schemes for Electromagnetics,” AIAA Paper No. 97-0363.
Gaitonde, D. , and Visbal, M. R. , 1998, “ High-Order Schemes for Navier-Stokes Equations: Algorithm and Implementation Into FDL3DI,” Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, Report No. AFRL-VA-WP-TR-1998-3060.
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2002, “ Application of Large-Eddy Simulation to Supersonic Compression Ramps,” AIAA J., 40(8), pp. 1574–1581. [CrossRef]
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2003, “ Large-Eddy Simulation of Supersonic Cavity Flowfields Including Flow Control,” AIAA J., 41(8), pp. 1452–1462. [CrossRef]
Sherer, S. E. , and Scott, J. N. , 2005, “ High-Order Compact Finite Difference Methods on General Overset Grids,” J. Comput. Phys., 210(2), pp. 459–496. [CrossRef]
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2005, “ Numerical Simulation of Separation Control for Transitional Highly-Loaded Low-Pressure Turbines,” AIAA J., 43(9), pp. 1958–1967. [CrossRef]
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2007, “ Direct Numerical Simulation of Flow Past an Array of Distributed Roughness Elements,” AIAA J., 45(8), pp. 1967–1976. [CrossRef]
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2009, “ Large Eddy Simulation of Plasma-Based Control Strategies for Bluff Body Flow,” AIAA J., 47(3), pp. 717–729. [CrossRef]
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2010, “ Large-Eddy Simulation of Plasma-Based Turbulent Boundary-Layer Separation Control,” AIAA J., 48(12), pp. 2793–2810. [CrossRef]
Rizzetta, D. P. , and Visbal, M. R. , 2014, “ Numerical Simulation of Excrescence Generated Transition,” AIAA J., 52(2), pp. 385–397. [CrossRef]
Steinbrenner, J. P. , Chawner, J. P. , and Fouts, C. L. , 1991, “ The GRIDGEN 3D Multiple Block Grid Generation System, Volume II: User's Manual,” Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, Report No. WRDC-TR-90-3022.
Visbal, M. R. , and Gaitonde, D. V. , 2001, “ Very High-Order Spatially Implicit Schemes for Computational Acoustics on Curvilinear Meshes,” J. Comput. Acoust., 09(4), pp. 1259–1286. [CrossRef]
Schlichting, H. , 1960, Boundary-Layer Theory, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Saric, W. S. , 1994, “ Physical Description of Boundary-Layer Transition: Experimental Evidence,” Progress in Transition Modelling, AGARD, Neuilly sur Seine, France, AGARD Report No. 793.
Piomelli, U. , and Balaras, E. , 2002, “ Wall-Layer Models for Large-Eddy Simulations,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 34(1), pp. 349–374. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the computational configuration (the z-direction stretched by factor of 10.0)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Computational mesh: (a) far-field region and (b) near-wall region of resolved domain (the y-direction stretched by factor of 3.0)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Deformed surface grid at actuator location: (a) minimum deflection and (b) maximum deflection (the y-direction stretched by factor of 50.0)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Planar contours of u-velocity for the baseline case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Boundary-layer velocity profiles at x =0.315 for the baseline case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Boundary-layer neutral curve stability diagram

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Instantaneous contours of v velocity with A1 only active

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Results with A1 only active: (a) time history of v at x =0.5 and (b) streamwise spatial distribution of vm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Streamwise spatial distribution of vm: (a) A1 and A2 active with B2 = B1 for values of ϕ2 and (b) A1 and A2 active with ϕ2 = 17 deg for values of B2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Control results for A1 and A2 active with B2 = 2.3B1 and ϕ2 = 17 deg: (a) time history of v at x =0.5 and (b) streamwise spatial distribution of vm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Instantaneous contours of v-velocity: (a) A1 only active and (b) A1 and A2 active with control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Streamwise distributions of v′ and Cf

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Spanwise distributions for actuator A1: (a) Fz1 for case 2 and (b) ϕ1 for case 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Instantaneous results for case 1: (a) contours of v in the near-wall region and (b) contours of v at the midspan and iso-surfaces of v

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Streamwise spatial distribution of vm for case 1: (a) A1 and A2 active with B2 = B1 for values of ϕ2 and (b) A1 and A2 active with ϕ2 = 19 deg for values of B2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Control results of case 1 for A1 and A2 active with B2 = 2.3B1 and ϕ2 = 19 deg: (a) time history of v at x =0.8 and (b) streamwise spatial distribution of vm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Instantaneous contours of v in the near-wall region for case 1 with A1 only active: (a) standard grid and (b) fine grid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Time-mean results for case 1 with A1 only active: (a) Cf and (b) v′

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Instantaneous contours of v in the near-wall region for A1 only active (left-hand column) and A1 plus control (right-hand column): (a) case 1, (b) case 2, and (c) case 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Instantaneous contours of v at the midspan and iso-surfaces of v for A1 only active (left-hand column) and A1 plus control (right-hand column): (a) case 1, (b) case 2, and (c) case3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Time sequence of instantaneous v-contours in the near-wall region for case 1 with A1 plus control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Time sequence of instantaneous v-contours at the midspan and iso-surfaces of v for case 1 with A1 plus control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Time-mean results for cases 1–3 with A1 only active and with A1 plus control: (a) Cf and (b) v′

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In