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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121101-121101-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040225.

This work presents an application of the partially averaged Navier–Stokes (PANS) equations for an external vehicle flow. In particular, the flow around a generic truck cabin is simulated. The PANS method is first validated against experiments and resolved large eddy simulation (LES) on two static cases. As a consequence, PANS is used to study the effect of an active flow control (AFC) on a dynamic oscillating configuration. The oscillation of the model represents a more realistic ground vehicle flow, where gusts (of different natures) define the unsteadiness of the incoming flow. In the numerical study, the model is forced to oscillate with a yaw angle 10 deg > β > –10 deg and a nondimensional frequency St = fW/Uinf = 0.1. The effect of the periodic motion of the model is compared with the quasi-static flow condition. At a later stage, the dynamic configuration is actuated by means of a synthetic jet boundary condition. Overall, the effect of the actuation is beneficial. The actuation of the AFC decreases drag, stabilizes the flow, and reduces the size of the side recirculation bubble.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121102-121102-15. doi:10.1115/1.4040228.

The performance of the transition models on three-dimensional (3D) flow of wings with aspect ratios (AR) of 1 and 3 at low Reynolds number was assessed in this study. For experimental work; force measurements, surface oil and smoke-wire flow visualizations were performed over the wings with NACA4412 section at Reynolds numbers of 2.5 × 104, 5 × 104, and 7.5 × 104 and the angles of attack of 8 deg, 12 deg, and 20 deg. Results showed that the AR had significant effects on the 3D flow structure over the wing. According to the experimental and numerical results, the flow over the wing having lower ARs can be defined with wingtip vortices, axial flow, and secondary flow including spiral vortex inside the separated flow. When the angle of attack and Reynolds number was increased, wing-tip vortices were enlarged and interacted with the axial flow. At higher AR, flow separation was dominant, whereas wing-tip vortices suppressed the flow separation over the wing with lower AR. In the numerical results, while there were some inconsistencies in the prediction of lift coefficients, the predictions of drag coefficients for two transition models were noticeably better. The performance of the transition models judged from surface patterns was good, but the k–kLω was preferable. Secondary flow including spiral vortices near the surface was predicted accurately by the k–kLω. Consequently, in comparison with experiments, the predictions of the k–kLω were better than those of the shear stress transport (SST) transition.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121103-121103-15. doi:10.1115/1.4040232.

This paper presents a hydrodynamic study of a propeller turbine runaway based on flow simulations and measurements results. Runaways are considered one of the most structurally damaging conditions a hydraulic turbine may encounter. This study focuses specifically on the flow dynamics in the runner and draft tube of a model propeller turbine installed on the test stand of the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory of Laval University, Quebec, Canada. The controlled runaway event reproduced on the test stand was part of a larger study into transient flow conditions. Besides global performance parameters, the measurements also featured 31 pressure transducers mounted on two runner blades. Using those measurements' results, both as boundary conditions and for validation purposes, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the entire turbine were performed. Those simulations featured transient boundary conditions to reproduce discharge and runner speed variations. Using wavelet transforms analysis, the evolution of the dominant pressure fluctuations is tracked in both, the measurements and the simulations. The wavelet analysis revealed the presence of pressure fluctuations with frequencies at a fraction of the runner rotation speed. Numerical results revealed that a vortex structure in the draft tube, similar to a part-load vortex rope, is the cause of those high-pressure fluctuations in the runner. A slight flow separation is observable on the pressure side of the blades but does not alter the flow in the inter-blade channels. Comparisons between experimental and numerical data also outline the limits of the methodology related, among others, with the imposition of strict boundary conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121104-121104-8. doi:10.1115/1.4040444.

A postprocessing method has been developed to enable the extraction of quantifiable data from images captured from within the rotating frame of reference of a Pelton turbine. The turbine tested was the reference Pelton runner, designed at the Waterpower Laboratory, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). The method relies on interpolation to three-dimensional (3D) map the inner hydraulic surface of the bucket. Interpolation has been conducted with two different schemes, i.e., Barycentric triangular and biharmonic spline, where the latter showed significant increase in accuracy. The 3D mapping provides the world coordinates of the pixels within the bucket and enables the tracking of the water front as it propagates through the bucket. The method has been described and the uncertainties have been estimated in the order of 0.4 mm for most of the hydraulic surface. The results follow expected, and previously observed, behavior and show great promise with regard to validation of numerical simulations. Results obtained by the method will be of great interest for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community as it can be used as direct validation data for flow propagation found with numerical methods. The method relies heavily on manual input due to the high noise and low contrast of the available images, which causes an increase in both uncertainty and time consumption. Suggestion for reducing uncertainty and time consumption are presented and will be implemented in future publications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121105-121105-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039863.

A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)-based nitric-oxide flow-tagging technique was applied to measure both velocity and NO lifetime in a hypersonic shock tunnel from two experimental test runs. The results were supported by an analytical profile proposed in this paper that provides a way to correct velocity measurements under unknown systematic error sources. This procedure provided velocities with discrepancies lower than 3% for a total of five measurements, and lower than 2% when compared with that obtained from a linear fit. Additionally, the comparison between the proposed and experimental profiles allowed us to obtain the fluorescence NO lifetime from only one image.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121106-121106-11. doi:10.1115/1.4040214.

Currently, the surgical procedure followed by the majority of cardiac surgeons to address right ventricular dysfunction is the Fontan procedure, which connects the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava (IVC) directly to the left and right pulmonary arteries (LPA and RPA, respectively) bypassing the right atrium. The goal of this study is to develop a patient-specific four-way connector to bypass the dysfunctional right ventricle and augment the pulmonary circulation. The four-way connector was intended to channel the blood flow from the inferior and superior vena cava directly to the RPA and LPA. By creating a connector with proper hemodynamic characteristics, one can control the jet flow interactions between the inferior and superior vena cava and streamline the flow toward the RPA and LPA. The focus for this study was on creating a system that could identify the optimal configuration for the four-way connector for patients from 0 to 20 years of age. A platform was created in ANSYS that utilized the design of experiments (DOE) function to minimize power-loss and blood damage propensity in the connector based on junction geometries. It was confirmed that as the patient's age and artery size change, the optimal size and shape of the connector also changes. However, the corner radius did not decrease at the same rate as the opening diameters. However, it was found that power losses within the connector decrease, and average and maximum blood traversal time through the connector increased for increasing opening radius.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121107-121107-13. doi:10.1115/1.4040300.

The larger objective of this research comes from the fact that optimization studies in “pumps operated as turbines” have concentrated only within flow zones without any physical perception regarding the influence of nonflow zones such as back-cavities in standard end-suction pumps. Four pumps of different designs are selected and their back cavities are reduced by inserting solid material, leaving a very small axial clearance. The effects are investigated on an experimental platform, which reveal unique phenomena taking place. The first is associated with the reduction of expected disk friction (hence improvement in shaft torque), while the second is more intricate considering the effect on fluid momentum through reorganization of tangential velocities, based on the mixing zone theory proposed in the paper. The net effect of reducing the volume of nonflow zones (i.e., filling of cavity) is the enhancement of efficiency in the range of 1.3% to 3.6% (±0.4%) in turbine mode. The experimental disk friction coefficient as a function of blade Reynolds number is corroborated with the established theory proposed by different researchers. A significant phenomenon observed was the elimination of vibration and noise at overload operating conditions with the minimal axial clearance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121108-121108-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040231.

The complex behavior of thermal fluids in nuclear reactors require the usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for design and analysis. In order to use CFD codes, they require regular benchmark problems to ensure the predictions are reasonable representations of reality. The twin jet water facility (TJWF) designed and built at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville was created for this purpose. The facility features twin planar-like turbulent free shear jets injecting fluid into a transparent tank to study a variety of flow behavior. The experimental work using this facility by Texas A&M University was used for the benchmarking activities. This work was conducted using a steady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes formulation to simulate the flow behavior. It was determined that the standard k–ε and elliptic blending Reynolds stress model (EBRSM) turbulence models can be used to simulate the twin jet behavior with reasonable success for design and analysis activities.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121109-121109-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040796.

This study involves exploring a new design of an internally cooled/heated desiccant contactor by using a new ionic liquid (IL) solution as the sorptive solution. In order to optimize its operative performance, a semitheoretical model based on the principle of minimum energy is developed to predict the film rupture and wetting ability of the IL solution over a comprehensive range of IL mass fraction and flow rates. A first experimental validation of the fundamental equations of the theoretical model is presented and used as a reference to minimize deviations between predicted results and measured data by calibrating dedicated characteristic coefficients. The noteworthy quantitative and qualitative agreement in the whole range of IL mass fractions and flow rates is promising for contributing to the design of optimized system configurations and control strategies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121110-121110-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040832.

Stokes flow in the branches of structured looped networks with successive identical square loops and T-junction branches is studied. Analytical expressions of the flow rate in the branches are determined for network of one, two, three, or four loops with junction head loss neglected relative to regular one. Then, a general expression of the flow rate is deduced for networks with more loops. This expression contains particularly a sequence of coefficients obeying to a recurrence formula. This sequence is a part of the fusion of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences. Furthermore, a general formula that expresses the quotient of flow rate in successive junction flow branches is given. The limit of this quotient for an infinite number of junction branches is found to be equal to 2+3. When the inlet and outlet flow rates are equal, this quotient obeys to a sequence of invariant numbers whatever the ratio of flow rate in the outlet branches is. Thus, the flow rate distribution for any configuration of inlet and outlet flow rates can be calculated. This study is also performed using Hardy–Cross method and a commercial solver of Navier-Stokes equation. The analytical results are approached very well with Hardy–Cross method. The numerical resolution agrees also with analytical results. However, the difference with the numerical results becomes significant for low flow rate in the junction branches. The flow streamlines are then determined for some inlet and outlet flow rate configurations. They particularly illustrate that recirculation flow takes place in branches of low flow rate.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121201-121201-16. doi:10.1115/1.4040301.

In the present study, the deformation of a droplet is numerically modeled by considering the dynamic model for electric charge migration at the drop interface under the effect of a uniform electric field. The drop and its ambient are both considered behaving as leaky dielectric fluids. Solving the charge conservation equation at the interface, which is the most important part of this study, the effect of conduction and convection of charges on different deformation modes will be explored. In this work, the interface is followed by the level set method and the ghost fluid method (GFM) is used to model the jumps at the interface. Physical properties are also chosen in a way that solving the charge conservation equation becomes prominent. The small drop deformation is investigated qualitatively by changing various effective parameters. In cases, different patterns of charges and flows are observed indicating the importance of electric charges at the interface. It is also shown that the transient behavior of deformation parameter can be either a monotonic or a nonmonotonic approach toward the steady-state. Moreover, large drop deformations are studied in different ranges of capillary numbers. It will be shown that for the selected range of physical parameters, considering the dynamic model of electric charges strongly affects the oblate deformation. Nevertheless, for the prolate deformation, the results are approximately similar to those obtained from the static model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121202-121202-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040365.

Simulations are carried out for linear shear flow past a rotating elliptic cylinder to investigate the effect of shear flow on hovering vortex. An in-house fluid solver that is based on immersed boundary method (IBM) is used to study the flow features and variation in aerodynamic forces. The simulations are carried out for various nondimensional rotation rates, axis ratio (AR) of the cylinder, and shear parameter. In shear flow past rotating elliptic cylinder, the negative vortices are sustained for longer distances in the downstream of the cylinder, and due to the velocity gradient, the sequence of the vortex street changes. It also has significant effect on the formation and composition of hovering vortex. To capture these features, each vortex is tracked as they form, detach, and move in the wake of the cylinder. Hovering vortex, formed due to coalescing of multiple vortices near the cylinder, is subdued for smaller rotation rates at moderate shear. It is also observed that lift forces increase linearly with shear, while the frequency of shedding shows no dependency on shear parameter.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121301-121301-15. doi:10.1115/1.4040445.

The erosion-corrosion problem of gas well pipeline under gas–liquid two-phase fluid flow is crucial for the natural gas well production, where multiphase transport phenomena expose great influences on the feature of erosion-corrosion. A Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid flow model is applied to deal with the three-dimensional gas–liquid two-phase erosion-corrosion problem and the chemical corrosion effects of the liquid droplets dissolved with CO2 on the wall are taken into consideration. The amount of erosion and chemical corrosion is predicted. The erosion-corrosion feature at different parts including expansion, contraction, step, screw sections, and bends along the well pipeline is numerically studied in detail. For dilute droplet flow, the interaction between flexible water droplets and pipeline walls under different operations is treated by different correlations according to the liquid droplet Reynolds numbers. An erosion-corrosion model is set up to address the local corrosion and erosion induced by the droplets impinging on the pipe surfaces. Three typical cases are studied and the mechanism of erosion-corrosion for different positions is investigated. It is explored by the numerical simulation that the erosion-corrosion changes with the practical production conditions: Under lower production rate, chemical corrosion is the main cause for erosion-corrosion; under higher production rate, erosion predominates greatly; and under very high production rate, erosion becomes the main cause. It is clarified that the parts including connection site of oil pipe, oil pipe set, and valve are the places where erosion-corrosion origins and becomes serious. The failure mechanism is explored and good comparison with field measurement is achieved.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121302-121302-5. doi:10.1115/1.4040362.

A modified Ritz method for solving nonuniform slip flow in a duct is applied to the semicircular duct and the isosceles triangular duct. These ducts are important in microfluidics. Detailed flow fields and Poiseuille numbers show the large effects of nonuniform slip. A rare exact solution for the semicircular duct with nonzero slip is also found.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;140(12):121303-121303-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040763.
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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-discrete element method (DEM) simulations are designed to model a pseudo-two-dimensional (2D) fluidized bed, in which bed thickness is minimal compared to height and length. Predicted bed behavior varies as the simulations are conducted on increasingly refined computational grids. Pseudo-2D simulation results, in which a single computational cell spans the bed thickness, are compared against fully-three-dimensional (3D) simulations results. Both pseudo-2D and fully-3D simulations exhibit high accuracy when sufficiently refined. Indicators of bed behavior, such as bed height, bed height fluctuation, bubble generation frequency, and segregation, do not appear to converge as the cell size is reduced. The Koch-Hill and Gidaspow drag laws are alternately employed in the simulations, resulting in different trends of results with computational grid refinement. Grid refinement studies are used to quantify the change in results with grid refinement for both three-dimensional, uniform refinement, and for two-dimensional refinement on pseudo-2D computational grids. Grid refinement study results indicate the total drag converges as the computational grid is refined, for both 3D and pseudo-2D approaches. The grid refinement study results are also used to distinguish the relatively grid-independent results using the Koch-Hill drag law from the highly grid-dependent Gidaspow drag law results. Computational cell size has a significant impact on CFD-DEM results for fluidized beds, but the grid refinement study method can be used to quantify the resulting numerical error.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Errata

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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