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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(4):041101-041101-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041729.

Hydrodynamic cavitation represents complex physical phenomenon undesirably affecting operation as well as lifespan of many hydraulic machines from small valves to the large hydro power plants. On the other hand, the same phenomenon and its concomitants such as pressure pulsations can be exploited in many positive ways. One of them which seems to be very promising and perspective is the cavitation utilization for reduction of the microorganisms such as cyanobacteria within large bulks of water. Mutual effect of the swirl induced by the upstream mounted generator and flow constriction in converging–diverging nozzle has been experimentally investigated. The analysis of the hydraulic losses in the wide range of the cavitation regimes has been done as well as the investigation of the pipe wall acceleration induced by the fluctuations of the cavitating structures. The dynamics of the cavitation was studied using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the captured video records. The main scope of this paper is numerical investigation complementing the experimental results. The multiphase simulations were carried out using the OpenFOAM 1606+ and its interPhaseChangeFoam solver. The present study focuses on computational fluid dynamics results of the cavitating velocity field within the nozzle and analysis of the loss coefficient within the nozzle. The results of the numerical analysis were utilized for the further discussion of the experimental results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(4):041102-041102-10. doi:10.1115/1.4041730.

Suction performance, pressure rise, and efficiency for four different inducers are examined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and experiments performed with 18,000 rpm and 24,000 rpm. The studies originate from a research project that includes the construction of a new test bench in order to judge the design of the different inducers. This test bench allows to conduct experiments with a rotational speed of up to 40,000 rpm and high pressure ranges from 0.1 bar to 40 bar with water as working fluid. Experimental results are used to evaluate the accuracy of the simulations and to gain a better understanding of the design parameter. The influence of increasing the rotating speed from 18,000 rpm to 24,000 rpm on the performance is also shown.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(4):041103-041103-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041728.

A high-head three-bladed inducer has been equipped with pressure taps on the hub along the blade channels with the aim of more closely investigating the dynamics of cavitation-induced instabilities developing in the impeller flow. Spectral analysis of the pressure signals obtained from two sets of transducers mounted both in the stationary and rotating frames has allowed to characterize the nature, intensity, and interactions of the main flow instabilities detected in the experiments: subsynchronous rotating cavitation (RC), cavitation surge (CS), and a high-order axial surge oscillation. A dynamic model of the unsteady flow in the blade channels has been developed based on experimental data and on suitable descriptions of the mean flow and the oscillations of the cavitating volume. The model has been used for estimating at the inducer operating conditions of interest the intensity of the flow oscillations associated with the occurrence of the CS mode generated by RC in the inducer inlet.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(4):041104-041104-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041731.

The paper describes the results of recent experiments carried out in the Cavitating Pump Rotordynamic Test Facility for the dynamic characterization of cavitation-induced flow instabilities as simultaneously observed in the stationary and rotating frames of a high-head, three-bladed axial inducer with tapered hub and variable pitch. The flow instabilities occurring in the eye and inside the blading of the inducer have been detected, identified, and monitored by means of the spectral analysis of the pressure measurements simultaneously performed in the stationary and rotating frames by multiple transducers mounted on the casing near the inducer eye and on the inducer hub along the blade channels. An interaction between the unstable flows in the pump inlet and in the blade channels during cavitating regime has been detected. The interaction is between a low frequency axial phenomenon, which cyclically fills and empties each blade channel with cavitation, and a rotating phenomenon detected in the inducer eye.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2019;141(4):041105-041105-8. doi:10.1115/1.4042067.

Despite recent extensive research into fluid–structure interaction (FSI) of cavitating hydrofoils, there remain insufficient experimental data to explain many of the observed phenomena. The cloud cavitation behavior around a hydrofoil due to the effect of FSI is investigated, utilizing rigid and compliant three-dimensional (3D) hydrofoils held in a cantilevered configuration in a cavitation tunnel. The hydrofoils have identical undeformed geometry of tapered planform with a constant modified NACA0009 profile. The rigid model is made of stainless steel and the compliant model of a carbon and glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin with the structural fibers aligned along the spanwise direction to avoid material bend-twist coupling. Tests were conducted at an incidence of 6 deg, a mean chord-based Reynolds number of 0.7 × 106 and cavitation number of 0.8. Force measurements were simultaneously acquired with high-speed imaging to enable correlation of forces with tip bending deformations and cavity physics. Hydrofoil compliance was seen to dampen the higher frequency force fluctuations while showing strong correlation between normal force and tip deflection. The 3D nature of the flow field was seen to cause complex cavitation behavior with two shedding modes observed on both models.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2019;141(4):041106-041106-18. doi:10.1115/1.4042175.

The effect of nonsinusoidal trajectory on the propulsive performances and the vortex shedding process behind a flapping airfoil is investigated in this study. A movement of a rigid NACA0012 airfoil undergoing a combined heaving and pitching motions at low Reynolds number (Re = 11,000) is considered. An elliptic function with an adjustable parameter S (flattening parameter) is used to realize various nonsinusoidal trajectories of both motions. The two-dimensional (2D) unsteady and incompressible Navier–Stokes equation governing the flow over the flapping airfoil are resolved using the commercial software starccm+. It is shown that the nonsinusoidal flapping motion has a major effect on the propulsive performances of the flapping airfoil. Although the maximum propulsive efficiency is always achievable with sinusoidal trajectories, nonsinusoidal trajectories are found to considerably improve performance: a 110% increase of the thrust force was obtained in the best studied case. This improvement is mainly related to the modification of the heaving motion, more specifically the increase of the heaving speed at maximum pitching angle of the foil. The analysis of the flow vorticity and wake structure also enables to explain the drop of the propulsive efficiency for nonsinusoidal trajectories.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2019;141(4):041201-041201-8. doi:10.1115/1.4042147.

Boundary element method (BEM) potential-flow solvers are regularly used in industrial applications due to their quick setup and computational time. In aerodynamics, vortex particle methods (VPM) are widely used with BEM potential-flow solvers for modeling lift. However, they are seldom applied to the ocean environment. This paper discusses the implementation of a VPM into Aegir, an existing time-domain, seakeeping, medium-fidelity, BEM potential-flow solver. The wake in the VPM is modeled using both a small dipole buffer wake sheet and vortex particles. It has been observed that this method captures both the details of complex wake patterns behind lift-producing surfaces and the expected lift force, thus improving the accuracy of the solution. Two new contributions presented in this paper include the extension of the VPM from previous source-based methods to a potential formulation and full interaction with free surface waves.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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