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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(5):051101-051101-26. doi:10.1115/1.4041229.

Collaboration is described on assessment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions for surface combatant model 5415 at static drift β = 0 deg and 20 deg using recent tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV) experiments. Assessment includes N-version verification and validation to determine the confidence intervals for CFD solutions/codes, and vortex onset, progression, instability, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget analysis. The increase in β shows the following trends. Forces and moment increase quadratically/cubically, and become unsteady due to shear layer, Karman and flapping instabilities on the bow. Wave elevation becomes asymmetric; its amplitude increases, but the total wave elevation angle remains same. The vortex strength and TKE increase by about two orders of magnitude, and for large β, the primary vortices exhibit helical mode instability similar to those for delta wings. Forces and moment for both β and wave elevation for β = 0 deg are compared within 4% of the data, and are validated at 7% interval. Wave elevation for β = 20 deg, and vortex core location and velocities for both β are compared within 9% of the data, and are validated at 12% interval. The vortex strength and TKE predictions show large 70% errors and equally large scatter and are not validated. Thus, both errors and scatter need reduction. TKE budgets show transport of turbulence into the separation bubble similar to canonical cases, but pressure transport is dominant for ship flows. Improved CFD predictions require better grids and/or turbulence models. Investigations of solution-adaptive mesh refinement for better grid design and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation models for improved turbulent flow predictions are highest priority.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(5):051102-051102-14. doi:10.1115/1.4041507.

An experimental program was conducted to investigate turbulent flow of water over the stationary sand bed deposited in horizontal annuli. A large-scale horizontal flow loop equipped with the state-of-the-art particle image velocimetry (PIV) system has been used for the experiments. Experiments were conducted to measure the instantaneous local velocity profiles during turbulent flow and examine the impact of the presence of a stationary sand bed deposits on the local velocity profiles, Reynolds shear stresses and turbulence intensities. Results have shown that the existence of a stationary sand bed causes the volumetric flow to be diverted away from the lower annular gap. Increasing the sand bed height causes further reduction of the volumetric flow rate in the lower annulus. Velocity profiles near the surface of the bed deposits showed a downward shift from the universal law in wall units indicating that the flow is hydraulically rough near the sand bed. The equivalent roughness height varied with flow rates. At flow rates less than the critical flow rate, the Reynolds stress profile near the bed interface had slightly higher peak values than that of the case with no sand bed. At the critical flow rate, however, the peak Reynolds stress values for the flow over the sand bed was lower than that of the case with no bed. This behavior is attributed to the bed load transport of sand particles at the critical flow rate.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(5):051103-051103-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041455.

The study is a continuation of the authors' previous works on hydrodynamics and sediment transport modeling for Calcasieu Lake area (located in southwest Louisiana) (Zhang, N., Zheng, Z. C., and Yadagiri, S., 2011, “A Hydrodynamic Simulation for the Circulation and Transport in Coastal Watersheds,” Comput. Fluids, 47(1), pp. 178–88; Zhang, N., Kee, D., and Li, P., 2013, “Investigation of the Impacts of Gulf Sediments on Calcasieu Ship Channel and Surrounding Water Systems,” Comput. Fluids, 77, pp. 125–133; Yadav, P. K., Thapa, S., Han, X., Richmond, C., and Zhang, N., 2015, “Investigation of the Effects of Wetland Vegetation on Coastal Flood Reduction Using Hydrodynamic Simulation,” ASME Paper No. AJKFluids2015-3044). The major purposes of the study are: (1) to demonstrate the new model features and validate the model results, (2) to disclose the effects of Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) and determine the boundary conditions for GIWW in the model, and (3) to use the model to analyze the effects of excessive freshwater withdrawals on the changes of hydrodynamics and salinity in the Calcasieu Lake system. Several new model features were added to the existing model framework, including the extension of modeling domain, vegetation model, salinity transport model, and pH calculation. Measurement data from NOAA and USGS are used as boundary conditions for the model. Simulation results were compared with measurement data from NOAA, USGS and other sources for validation. Due to lack of measured data for GIWW in the target area, the effect of GIWW flow conditions on the modeling results was investigated and appropriate GIWW boundary condition was determined based on numerical tests. Numerous petrochemical plants in the area use tremendous amount of fresh surface water. Recent industry expansions may further increase the demands of freshwater withdrawals. One of the purposes of the study is to use developed model to test and analyze the effects of increased freshwater withdrawal from Calcasieu River at the north boundary of the study area on the hydrodynamics and salinity in the downstream Calcasieu Lake system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(5):051104-051104-15. doi:10.1115/1.4041523.

This article describes a direct comparison between two symmetrical airfoils undergoing dynamic stall at high, unsteady reduced frequencies under otherwise identical conditions. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed to distinguish the differences in flow structure between a NACA 0021 and a NACA 0012 airfoil undergoing dynamic stall. In addition, surface pressure measurements were performed to evaluate aerodynamic load and investigate the effect of laminar separation bubbles and vortex structures on the pressure fields surrounding the airfoils. Airfoil geometry is shown to have a significant effect on flow structure development and boundary layer separation, with separation occurring earlier for thinner airfoil sections undergoing constant pitch-rate motion. Inertial forces were identified to have a considerable impact on the overall force generation with increasing rotation rate. Force oscillation was observed to correlate with multiple vortex structures shedding at the trailing-edge during high rotation rates. The presence of laminar separation bubbles on the upper and lower surfaces was shown to dramatically influence the steady-state lift of both airfoils. Poststall characteristics are shown to be independent of airfoil geometry such that periodic vortex shedding was observed for all cases. However, the onset of deep stall is delayed with increased nondimensional pitch rate due to the delay in initial dynamic-stall vortex.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(5):051201-051201-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041232.

Determination of friction factor (f) in pipe flow is necessary for various applications dealing with fluid flow. The Colebrook–White equation is the most accepted technique for the f-values estimation in turbulent flow. The biggest problem with this equation is that it can only be solved using numerical iteration methods. This paper contributes two new formulas based on the Colebrook–White equation to calculate f for the turbulent flow regime. To determine the new correlations, several equations were first suggested and then their coefficients were determined using the curve fitting method. Thereafter, based on various statistical error calculations, two equations with the highest accuracies were selected for the further modification. The advantages of the proposed correlations are that they are explicit in f so they do not need any iteration to compute friction factor and the results of calculating f-values reveal that the two new equations are of maximum absolute percent errors (APE) of 0.91% and 3.49% over the entire applicability range of Colebrook–White equation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(5):051202-051202-9. doi:10.1115/1.4041392.

This paper deals with the dynamic stability of a flexible liquid-filled rotor. On the basis of three-dimensional flow, the fluid perturbation motion is analyzed and the fluid–structure interaction equation is established, combining with continuity equation, the expression of fluid force exerted on rotor is derived in terms of Fourier series expansion. Considering the complex nonlinear relationship between fluid dynamic pressure and the rotor deformation function, they are expanded in terms of the eigenfunction of a dry rotor. The whirling frequency equation of a flexible rotor partially filled with liquid is obtained based on the rotor static equilibrium equation. Finally, the numerical technique is used to analyze the dynamic stability of the rotor system, and the influences of system parameters on unstable region are discussed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(5):051203-051203-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041561.

Head and flow rate are the important parameters for proper selection of centrifugal pump. However, the reversed operation of centrifugal pump leads to the off-design characteristic of head and flow rate. This paper presents an analytical model developed by using the system curves and velocity relations derived from pump application. Also, the differential technique is applied to the analytical model to develop the off-design characteristics of head ratio and flow rate ratio relations. The off-design characteristic relations were compared with literature and available conversion methods. Then, the analytical model coefficient (AMC) with the range between −4 and +4 was developed from the off-design characteristics of head ratio and flow rate ratio relations. The AMC value was equal to 1 when the pump operates in turbine mode and pump mode at the pump best efficiency point (BEP) and extended to either side up to ±4 when tested with literature data. Therefore, the analytical model consists of the off-design head and flow rate characteristics, when simplified leading to the AMC that could be applied to select the possible boundary limits of head and flow rate for different pumps.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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