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### Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061101-061101-12. doi:10.1115/1.4041716.

Transitional cavity shedding is known as the stage of attached cavitation with high instability and distinct periodicity. In this study, we experimentally investigated the dynamic characteristics of transitional cavity ($0.8≤L/c<1$) shedding on NACA0015 hydrofoil with high-speed video observation and synchronous pressure measurement. In the partial cavity ($0.4) oscillation, the sheet cavitation grew along the chord with good spanwise uniformity, and the middle-entrant jet played a dominant role in cavity shedding. Meanwhile, in the transitional cavity oscillation, the previous shedding cavity exhibited a prohibitive effect on the growth of sheet cavitation on the hydrofoil, resulting in concave cavity closure line. Moreover, two symmetrical side-entrant jets originated at the near-wall ends and induced the two-stage shedding phenomenon. The aft and fore parts of the sheet cavitation shed separated as different forms and eventually merged into the large-scale cloud cavity.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061102-061102-18. doi:10.1115/1.4041760.

An experimental study is presented on water single-phase flow in two 10.5 m-long annular ducts, with external pipe's internal diameter (De) of 155 mm and two concentric internal pipes of external diameters (Di) of 60 mm and 125 mm, i.e., radius ratio (α = Ri/e) of 0.39 and 0.80, respectively, with the aim of improving the understanding of flows in annular ducts. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to obtain instantaneous and averaged velocity measurements of the flow field. A charge-coupled device camera $($2448 pixel × 2050 pixel, 5 Mpixel, 12-bit $)$ recorded pairs of images of the seeding particles and a double-pulsed PIV laser (Nd:YAG, frequency doubled to 532 nm), with a measured pulse intensity of 70 to 75 mJ/pulse, provided the illumination. Laminar flows were analyzed for validation purposes, experimental data on turbulent flows were compared with the classical law of the wall of the turbulent boundary-layer model, and the shear stresses derived from PIV data were compared with those calculated from the measured pressure drop. The effects of the Reynolds number and geometry on turbulent velocity profiles and Reynolds stresses are presented. The results suggest that the law of the wall for annular-duct flow is a function of radius ratio. The new experimental results are of great value for the development of computational fluid dynamics models and more refined pressure-drop prediction tools in annular-duct flow.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061103-061103-12. doi:10.1115/1.4041815.

In general speaking, the missiles execute flight at high angles of attack in order to enhance their maneuverability. However, the inevitable side-force, which is caused by the asymmetric flow over these kinds of traditional slender body configurations with blunt nose at a high attack angle, induces the yawing or rolling deviation and the missiles will lose their predicted trajectory consequently. This study examines and diminishes the side-force induced by the inevitable asymmetric flow around this traditional slender body configuration with blunt nose at a high angle of attack (AoA = 50 deg). On one hand, the flow over a fixed blunt-nosed slender body model with strakes mounted at an axial position of x/D = 1.6–2.7 is investigated experimentally at α = 50 deg (D is the diameter of the model). On the other hand, the wingspan of the strakes is varied to investigate its effect on the leeward flow over the model. The Reynolds number is set at ReD = 1.54 × 105 based on D and incoming upstream velocity. The results verify that the formation of asymmetric vortices is hindered by the existence of strakes, and the strake-induced vortices develop symmetrically and contribute to the reduction in side-force of the model. In addition, the increase in strake wingspan reduces asymmetric characteristics of the vortex around the model and causes a significant decrease in side-force in each section measured. The strake with the 0.1D wingspan can reduce the sectional side-force to 25% of that in the condition without strakes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061104-061104-12. doi:10.1115/1.4041814.

Due to the deficiency of the research on parallel foils, the parallel configuration of foils is concerned and the effects of motion parameters on energy extraction are systematically discussed in the present study. The foils undergo combined plunging and pitching motions. The effects of motion parameters (pitching amplitude, plunging amplitude, reduced frequency, and spacing between foils) in wide range are investigated at Re = 1100 through two-dimensional (2D) unsteady laminar flow simulations. The features of power output and efficiency changing with these motion parameters as well as the evolution of the vortex fields are gained. The principle that how motion parameters affecting energy extraction performance is studied. The extraction performance of parallel foils and single foil is compared at the optimal working parameters of the single foil. Numerical results indicate the optimal extraction performance of the parallel foils is superior to that of the single foil. CPm improves by 6.87% relatively. Therefore, it reveals that the parallel foils can perform the better extraction characteristics than the single foil by controlling parameters.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061105-061105-14. doi:10.1115/1.4041886.

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of four cylinders with different cross sections were performed in a recirculating water channel at Reynolds numbers of 5000 and 10,000. The cylinders were split into two distinct categories; semicircular and convex-edged triangular (c-triangular) prisms which have a smooth diverging fore-face and a flat, backward facing step aft-face, and a trapezoid which has a flat fore face and a backward-facing step aft-face. The resulting streamwise and transverse velocity vectors (u and v, respectively) were analyzed to provide a qualitative comparison of the bluff body wakes to the circular cylinder, which is the standard upstream stationary body in wake-induced vibration (WIV) energy technology. The Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mean spanwise vorticity, and the energy in the fluctuating component of the wake were compared. The main findings are: (i) a convex fore-face and a backward-facing step aft face are more effective at converting the flow energy to temporal wake energy (+20%) compared to a circular cylinder, (ii) a trapezoid type shape is less effective at converting flow energy to temporal wake energy (−40%) compared to a circular cylinder, (iii) increasing Reynolds number reduces the efficiency of conversion of upstream flow energy to downstream transverse temporal energy. Utilizing stationary upstream bodies such as the semicircle and the c-triangle can result in concentrating more energy in the fluctuating components for the downstream transversely vibrating bluff body in a WIV system, and hence can realize in more efficient WIV technology.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061106-061106-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041879.

A computational methodology, which combines a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique and a computational structural dynamics (CSD) technique, is employed to design a deformable foil whose kinematics is inspired by the propulsive motion of the fin or the tail of a fish or a cetacean. The unsteady incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are solved using a second-order accurate finite difference method and an immersed-boundary method to effectively impose boundary conditions on complex moving boundaries. A finite element-based structural dynamics solver is employed to compute the deformation of the foil due to interaction with fluid. The integrated CFD–CSD simulation capability is coupled with a surrogate management framework (SMF) for nongradient-based multivariable optimization in order to optimize flapping kinematics and flexibility of the foil. The flapping kinematics is manipulated for a rigid nondeforming foil through the pitching amplitude and the phase angle between heaving and pitching motions. The flexibility is additionally controlled for a flexible deforming foil through the selection of material with a range of Young's modulus. A parametric analysis with respect to pitching amplitude, phase angle, and Young's modulus on propulsion efficiency is presented at Reynolds number of 1100 for the NACA 0012 airfoil.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061107-061107-13. doi:10.1115/1.4042094.

Quasi-two-dimensional (2D) modeling of unsteady flow is important for the accurate prediction of flow and pressure in pipeline systems. In this study, a generalized method is developed to consider various inline components such as junctions and inline valves for quasi-2D method of characteristic (MOC). The occurrence of vaporous cavitation is incorporated into the developed scheme under transient conditions. To address the discharge and pressure profile at the generalized component, a procedure is proposed to obtain the convergence satisfying the characteristic equations and hydraulic structure function. The validity of the developed method is tested for two different pipeline systems. Good agreements of transient pressure between simulations and experimental results are obtained, thus demonstrating the predictability of the developed method for junctions and inline valves with vaporous cavitation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061201-061201-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041611.

For vibro-acoustic applications, a turbulent wall pressure (TWP) fluctuations model was derived. The model is based on the resolution of Poisson's equation. The pressure is characterized in time and space through its spectrum in the frequency wave-number domain. The developed model follows trends commonly observed using Corcos model in a large frequency range but also shows new behaviors for low and high frequencies. The radiated noise due to TWP fluctuations is then computed in accordance with the form of the TWP spectrum. A specific computational methodology is proposed to perform the calculation without introducing limiting hypothesis on the radiated impedance.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061202-061202-10. doi:10.1115/1.4041890.

The dynamics of an actively controlled fluidic diverter with novel actuation method are presented. This bistable fluidic valve is based on the Coanda effect and is able to switch the main flow solely by means of acoustic excitation. The switching is explained through a combination of experiments and large eddy simulations (LES). The switching time and minimum energy required are characterized for a range of pressure ratios, acoustic excitation frequencies, and input powers. It is shown that the switching mechanism depends on the excitation of natural instabilities inside the free shear layer. An enhanced roll-up of vortices at the excitation frequency increases the rate of entrainment and results in a transverse pressure gradient sufficient to counteract the Coanda effect leading to jet detachment and switching.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061203-061203-11. doi:10.1115/1.4042036.

An experimental study is carried out to investigate the unsteady pressure exerted on the surface of a round cylinder in the subcritical Reynolds number range. Results are presented for the surface pressure fluctuations, spanwise coherence, lateral correlation length, and peripheral coherence. Discussions are provided for the dominance of the first three vortex shedding tones at different regions of the cylinder and the size of the flow structures around the cylinder. The dataset provided have shed new light on the unsteady aerodynamic loading acting on cylinders and provides the impetus for further research on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of bluff bodies.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061301-061301-16. doi:10.1115/1.4041987.

A contact angle control algorithm is developed and implemented in the multiphase interface tracking flow solver—phasta. The subgrid force model is introduced to control the evolving contact angle. The contact angle force is applied when the current contact angle deviates from the desired value (or range of values) and decreases to zero when it reaches the desired value. The single bubble departure simulation and the capillary flat plates simulation are performed for verification purpose. The numerical results are compared with the analytical solution with good agreement. The mesh resolution sensitivity analysis and parametric study are conducted for both simulations. Coupled with the other existing capabilities in phasta like evaporation and condensation algorithm, the contact angle control algorithm will allow us to investigate the boiling phenomenon in various conditions with lower cost (by utilizing localized mesh refinement for bubble growth region) compared to uniformly refined structured meshes and in engineering geometries.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061302-061302-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041876.

Multistage centrifugal pumps are highly efficient and compact in structure. Pump efficiency can be improved by an effective understanding of hydraulic behavior and energy loss, however, the traditional hydraulic loss evaluation method does not readily reveal the specific locations of energy loss in the pump. In this study, a guide ring was imposed in multistage pumps, and an entropy production theory was applied to investigate irreversible energy loss of a multistage pump with and without guide ring. Detailed distributions of energy losses in the pumps were calculated to determine the respective entropy production rates (EPRs). The EPR values as calculated are in close accordance with actual hydraulic loss values in the pumps. EPR values were higher in the multistage pump with the guide ring than the pump without a guide ring under part-load flow conditions (0.2Qd). However, the vortex flow in the pump was weakened (or eliminated) by the guide ring as flow rate increased; this reduced energy loss in the chambers. Flow passing the chamber was stabilized by the guide ring, which decreased shock and vortex loss in the chamber and guide vane. Under both designed flow condition and overload conditions, the EPR values of the guide ring-equipped multistage pump were lower than those without the guide ring. Furthermore, minimum efficiency index (MEI) values were also calculated for the two chamber structures; it was found that overall efficiency of pump with guide ring is better than that without.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Research Papers: Techniques and Procedures

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061401-061401-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041758.

We present three algorithms for robust and efficient geometric calculations in the context of immersed boundary method (IBM), including classification of mesh cells as inside/outside of a closed surface, projection of points onto a surface, and accurate calculation of the solid volume fraction field created by a closed surface overlapping with a background Cartesian mesh. The algorithms use the signed distance field (SDF) to represent the surface and remove the intersection tests, which are usually required by other algorithms developed before, no matter the surface is described in analytic or discrete form. The errors of the algorithms are analyzed. We also develop an approximate method on efficient SDF field calculation for complex geometries. We demonstrate how the algorithms can be implemented within the framework of IBM with a volume-average discrete-forcing scheme and applied to simulate fluid–structure interaction problems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):061402-061402-11. doi:10.1115/1.4041759.

This paper describes a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for the study of flexible cloth-like structures or the so-called rags in flows through centrifugal pumps. The structural model and its coupling to the flow solver are based on a Lagrangian formulation combining structural deformation and motion modeling coupled to a sharp interface immersed boundary model (IBM). The solution has been implemented in the open-source library OpenFOAM relying in particular on its PIMPLE segregated Navier–Stokes pressure–velocity coupling and its detached eddy simulation (DES) turbulence model. The FSI solver is assessed in terms of its capability to generate consistent deformations and transport of the immersed flexible structures. Two benchmark cases are covered and both involve experimental validation with three-dimensional (3D) structural deformations of the rag captured using a digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Simulations of a rag transported in a centrifugal pump confirm the suitability of the model to inform on the dynamic behavior of immersed structures under practical engineering conditions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

### Technical Brief

J. Fluids Eng. 2018;141(6):064501-064501-4. doi:10.1115/1.4041736.

The effect of trailing-edge flap (TEF) deflection on the aerodynamic properties and flowfield of a symmetric airfoil over a wavy ground was investigated experimentally. This Technical Brief is a continuation of Lee and Tremblay-Dionne (2018, “Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamics and Flowfield of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Over a Wavy Ground,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 140(7), p. 071202) in which an unflapped airfoil was employed. Regardless of the flap deflection, the cyclic variation in the sectional lift Cl and pitching moment Cm coefficients over the wavy ground always persists. The Cm also has an opposite trend to Cl. The flap deflection, however, produces an increased maximum and minimum Cl and Cm with a reduced fluctuation compared to their unflapped counterparts. The Cd increase outperforms the Cl increase, leading to a lowered Cl/Cd of the flapped airfoil.

Topics: Deflection , Airfoils
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster