In this paper, we report measurements of the multi-variable torque-displacement relation at the ankle. The passive behavior of the ankle in two degrees of freedom (inversion-eversion and dorsiflexion-plantarflexion) was quantified using the Anklebot. The measured torque-displacement relationship was represented as a vector field using thin-plate spline smoothing with generalized cross validation. Analysis of the experimental results showed that, when maximally relaxed, the ankle behaved like a mechanical spring. However, if muscles were active, the torque-displacement relation was not spring-like. Implications for the contribution of neural feedback to ankle impedance are discussed.

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