Though ankle mechanical impedance plays an important role in posture and locomotion, it has been inadequately characterized. Unlike previous studies, which confined themselves to measurements along the primary axes of the ankle in an isolated fashion, the study reported here characterized the static component of ankle impedance in two degrees of freedom. In addition, the effect of active muscle contraction on ankle static impedance was measured. We found that ankle static impedance varied significantly with direction under passive conditions. We further observed that, while muscle contraction increased the magnitude of ankle static impedance, its directional variation was essentially unchanged.

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