The effects of passive pre-chamber (PC) geometry and nozzle pattern as well as the use of either conventional spark or non-equilibrium plasma PC ignition system on knocking events were studied in an optically-accessible single-cylinder gasoline research engine. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the main chamber (MC) was maintained equal to 0.94 at a constant engine speed of 1300 rpm, and at constant engine load of 3.5 bar indicated mean effective pressure for all operating conditions. MC pressure profiles were collected and analyzed to infer the amplitude and the frequency of pressure oscillations that resulted in knocking events. The combustion process in the MC was investigated utilizing high-speed excited methylidyne radical (CH*) chemiluminescence images. The collected results highlighted that PC volume and nozzle pattern substantially affected the knock intensity (KI), while the use of the non-equilibrium plasma ignition system exhibited lower KI compared to PC equipped with a conventional inductive ignition system. It was also identified that knocking events were likely not generated by conventional end gas auto-ignition, but by jet-related phenomena, as well as jet-flame wall quenching. The relation between these phenomena and PC geometry, nozzle pattern, as well as ignition system has been also highlighted and discussed.

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