Development of many industrial and new technologies is limited by existing thermal management, and need for high-performance cooling. Nanofluids, stable colloidal mixtures of nanoparticles (including nanofibers and functional nanocomposites) in common fluids, have a potential to meet these and many other challenges. Colloidal nano-mixtures with functionally-stable and active-like nanostructures that may self-adjust to the process conditions, require systematic surface-chemistry study and enhancements (coatings with functional layers, surfactants, etc), in addition to investigation of thermo-physical characteristics and phenomena. A comprehensive, systematic and interdisciplinary experimental research program is necessary to study, understand and resolve critical issues in nanofluids research to date. The research must focus on both synthesis and a careful exploration of thermo-physical characteristics. Development of new-hybrid, drag-reducing nanofluids may lead to enhanced flow and heat transfer characteristics. The nanoparticles in these fluids yield increased heat-transfer while the long-chain polymers are expected to enhance flow properties, including active and functional interactions with nanoparticles, thus providing potential for many applications yet to be developed and optimized.

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