Tsunami wave generation by submarine and aerial landslides is examined in this paper. Two different two-dimensional numerical methods have been used to simulate the time histories of fluid motion, free surface deformation, shoreline movement, and wave runup from tsunami waves generated by aerial and submarine landslides. The first approach is based on the Navier-Stokes equation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method: the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based turbulence model simulates turbulence, and the VOF method tracks the free surface locations. The second method uses Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)—a numerical model based on a fully Lagrangian approach. In the current work, two-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out for a freely falling wedge representing the landslide and subsequent wave generations. Numerical simulations for the landslide-driven tsunami waves have been performed with different values of landslide material densities. Numerical results obtained from both approaches are compared with experimental data. Simulated results for both aerial and submerged landslides show the complex flow patterns in terms of the velocity field, shoreline evolution, and free-surface profiles. Flows are found to be strongly transient, rotational, and turbulent. Predicted numerical results for time histories of free-surface fluctuations and the runup/rundown at various locations are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The similarity and discrepancy between the solutions obtained by the two approaches are explored and discussed.

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