Embedded piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems in medical pacemakers have been an attractive and well visited research area. These systems typically utilize different configurations of beam structures with forcing originating from heart beat oscillations. The goal of these systems is to remove the pacemaker battery, which makes up 60–80% of the device volume, and replace it with a self-reliant power option. With emerging technologies encouraging a push towards leadless pacemakers typical energy harvesting beam structures are becoming inherently coupled with the heart system. The introduction of the nonlinearity resulting from the bistable magnetic interaction of two magnets is known to enhance energy harvesting performance due to its double-well potential behavior. Introducing the elastic magnifier enables large tip oscillations and high energy orbits for the bistable system. A continuous nonlinear model is derived for the bistable system (BPEH) and a one-degree-of-freedom linear mass-spring-damper model is derived for the elastic magnifier. The elastic magnifier (EM) will not consider the damping negligible due to the viscous nature of the heart, unlike most models. For experimental testing a physical model was created for the bistable structure and fashioned to an elastic magnifier. A hydrogel was chosen as the physical model for the EM. Experimental results have shown that the bistable piezoelectric energy harvester coupled with a linear elastic magnifier (BPEH+LEM) produces more power at certain input frequencies and operates a larger bandwidth than a PEH, BPEH, and a standard piezoelectric energy harvester with the elastic magnifier (PEH+LEM). Numerical simulations were validated by these results showing that this system enters high-energy and high orbit oscillations. It has been shown that BPEH systems implemented in medical pacemakers can have enhanced performance if positioned over the myocardial heart wall.
- Aerospace Division
A Bistable Piezoelectric Energy Harvester With an Elastic Magnifier for Applications in Medical Pacemakers
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Galbier, AC, & Karami, MA. "A Bistable Piezoelectric Energy Harvester With an Elastic Magnifier for Applications in Medical Pacemakers." Proceedings of the ASME 2016 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems. Volume 2: Modeling, Simulation and Control; Bio-Inspired Smart Materials and Systems; Energy Harvesting. Stowe, Vermont, USA. September 28–30, 2016. V002T07A008. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMASIS2016-9192
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