Abstract

We report closed-form formulas to calculate the incremental-deposition stress, the elastic relaxation stress, and the residual stress in a finite-thickness film from a wafer-curvature measurement. The calculation shows how the incremental deposition of a new stressed layer to the film affects the amount of the film/wafer curvature and the stress state of the previously deposited layers. The formulas allow the incremental-deposition stress and the elastic relaxation to be correctly calculated from the slope of the measured curvature versus thickness for arbitrary thicknesses and biaxial moduli of the film and the substrate. Subtraction of the cumulative elastic relaxation from the incremental-deposition stress history results in the residual stress left in the film after the whole deposition process. The validities of the formulas are confirmed by curvature measurements of electrodeposited Ni films on substrates with different thicknesses.

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