Computational Analysis of a Inverted Double-Element Airfoil in Ground Effect

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephen Mahon, Xin Zhang

Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering Sciences,  University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

J. Fluids Eng 128(6), 1172-1180 (Apr 09, 2006) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2353268 History: Received April 13, 2005; Revised April 09, 2006

The flow around an inverted double-element airfoil in ground effect was studied numerically, by solving the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The predictive capabilities of six turbulence models with regards to the surface pressures, wake flow field, and sectional forces were quantified. The realizable kε model was found to offer improved predictions of the surface pressures and wake flow field. A number of ride heights were investigated, covering various force regions. The surface pressures, sectional forces, and wake flow field were all modeled accurately and offered improvements over previous numerical investigations. The sectional forces indicated that the main element generated the majority of the downforce, whereas the flap generated the majority of the drag. The near field and far field wake development was investigated and suggestions concerning reduction of the wake thickness were offered. The main element wake was found to greatly contribute to the overall wake thickness with the contribution increasing as the ride height decreased.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Definition of the terms and coordinate system

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Figure 2

Computational domain (a) schematic, (b) near wall grid, and (c) off-surface domains

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Figure 3

Effect of grid resolution (a) surface pressure distributions and (b) wake profiles at x∕c=1.066

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Figure 4

Effects of turbulence models (a) surface pressures at h∕c=0.211, (b) wake profiles at x∕c=1.066 for h∕c=0.211, (c) surface pressures at h∕c=0.079, and (d) wake profiles at x∕c=1.066 for h∕c=0.079

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Figure 5

Surface pressures at various ride heights (a) high ride heights (b) low ride heights; realizable k−ε

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Figure 6

Sectional forces at various ride heights (a) total downforce (b) downforce due to the main element and flap

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Figure 7

Contours of u∕U∞(a)h∕c=0.395(b)h∕c=0.079; realizable k−ε

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Figure 8

Streamwise development of main element wake thickness at various ride heights; realizable k−ε

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Figure 9

Wake profiles (a) various ride heights at x∕c=1.066(b) various streamwise locations at h∕c=0.105; realizable k−ε



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