Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Cavitation Inception and Head Loss Due to Liquid Flow Through Perforated Plates of Varying Thickness

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Maynes

e-mail: maynes@byu.edu

J. Blotter

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Brigham Young University,
Provo, UT 84602

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 26, 2012; final manuscript received December 18, 2012; published online February 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Mark R. Duignan.

J. Fluids Eng 135(3), 031302 (Feb 22, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-12-1305; doi: 10.1115/1.4023407 History: Received June 26, 2012; Revised December 18, 2012

This paper reports results of an experimental investigation of the loss coefficient and onset of cavitation caused by water flow through perforated plates of varying thickness and flow area to pipe area ratio at high speeds. The overall plate loss coefficient, point of cavitation inception, and point where critical cavitation occurs are functions of perforation hole size, number of holes, and plate thickness. Sixteen total plates were considered in the study with the total perforation hole area to pipe area ratio ranging from 0.11 and 0.6, the plate thickness to perforation hole diameter ranging from 0.25 to 3.3, and the number of perforation holes ranging from 4 to 1800. The plates were mounted in the test section of a closed water flow loop. The results reveal a complex dependency between the plate loss coefficient with total free-area ratio and the plate thickness to perforation hole diameter ratio. In general, the loss coefficient decreases with increasing free-area ratio and increasing thickness-to-hole diameter ratio. A model based on the data is presented that predicts the loss coefficient for multiholed perforated plates with nonrounded holes. Furthermore, the data show that the cavitation number at the points of cavitation inception and critical cavitation increases with increasing free-area ratio. However, with regard to the thickness-to-hole diameter ratio, the cavitation number at inception exhibits a local maximum at a ratio between 0.5 and 1.0. Empirical models to allow prediction of the point of cavitation inception and the point where critical cavitation begins are presented and compared to single hole orifice plate behavior.

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Fig. 1

Photograph of a typical multiholed perforated plate used in this study

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Fig. 2

A representative plot of A′ versus σ, illustrating the four different cavitation regimes described in the text

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Fig. 3

Illustration of a flow through a thin perforation hole when flow does not reattach after the vena-contracta (detached) with the control volume for the integral analysis indicated

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Fig. 4

Illustration of flow through a thick perforation hole when the flow reattaches in the hole after the vena-contracta with the control volumes used for the integral analysis indicated

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Fig. 5

Schematic drawing of the flow loop facility used for all experiments

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Fig. 6

ln(A′) as a function of ln(σ) for a typical plate. Cavitation inception and critical cavitation values are denoted at the intersection of the linear fits (y = mx + b) for each of the three regimes.

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Fig. 9

KLh as a function of the thickness ratio, t/d, for 16 perforated plates and nominal free-area ratios of 0.11, 0.22, 0.44, and 0.0.61. Data from Kolodzie and Van Winkle [13] are also shown at nominal free-area ratios of 0.05 and 0.14.

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Fig. 7

Loss coefficient, KLh, as a function of the average perforation hole velocity for six perforated plates

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Fig. 8

Loss coefficient, KLh, versus the total through area ratio, Ah/Ap, for 16 perforated plates. Included are the theoretical attached model, KLA, and a theoretical detached model, KLD. Data from Kolodzie and Van Winkle [13], Testud et al. [2], and Tullis [11] are also included for comparison.

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Fig. 10

Ratio of the actual loss coefficient over the theoretical loss coefficient, KLh/KLA as a function of the parameter ϕ for all perforated plates considered in this study. Data from Refs. [2], [11], and [13], are also shown.

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Fig. 14

σi* (top) and σc* (bottom) as a function of discharge coefficient for 14 multiholed perforated plates. Data of Testud et al. [2] and Tullis [11] are also shown for comparison.

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Fig. 11

A′ as a function of Vh for six perforated plates as described in the figure legend

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Fig. 12

Incipient (top) and critical (bottom) cavitation numbers as a function of t/d for 14 perforated plates at three nominal free-area ratios as shown in the legend. Data of Tullis [11] for a single hole orifice are also shown.

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Fig. 13

Incipient (top) and critical (bottom) cavitation number as a function of discharge coefficient for 14 multiholed perforated plates. Data of Testud et al. [2] and Tullis [11] are also shown for comparison.



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