Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Structures Associated With Low Aspect Ratio Elliptical Cavities

[+] Author and Article Information
Taravat Khadivi

e-mail: tkhadivi@alumni.uwo.ca

Eric Savory

e-mail: esavory@eng.uwo.ca
Department of Mechanical and Materials
University of Western Ontario,
London, ON, N6A 5B9, Canada

Manuscript received October 1, 2012; final manuscript received January 28, 2013; published online March 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Francine Battaglia.

J. Fluids Eng 135(4), 041104 (Mar 21, 2013) (14 pages) Paper No: FE-12-1488; doi: 10.1115/1.4023652 History: Received October 01, 2012; Revised January 28, 2013

The flow regimes associated with 2:1 aspect ratio elliptical planform cavities of varying depth immersed in a turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number of 8.7 × 104, based on the minor axis of the cavity, have been quantified from particle image velocimetry measurements and three-dimensional steady computational fluid dynamics simulations (Reynolds stress model closure). Although these elliptical cavity flows have some similarities with nominally two-dimensional and rectangular cases, three-dimensional effects due to the low aspect ratio and curvature of the walls give rise to features exclusive to low aspect ratio elliptical cavities, including formation of cellular structures at intermediate depths and vortex structures within and downstream of the cavity.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Friesing, H., 1963, “Measurement of the Drag Associated With Recessed Surfaces: Cut-Outs of Rectangular and Elliptical Planform,” ZWBFB 628 (RAE Library Translation 1614, 1971).
Roshko, A., 1955 “Some Measurements of Flow in a Rectangular Cutout,” Report No. NACA TN 3488.
Tani, I., Iuchi, M., and Komoda, H., 1961, “Experimental Investigation of Flow Separation Associated With a Step or Groove,” Aeronautical Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Report No. 364.
Charwat, A. F., Roos, J. N., Dewey, F. C., and Hitz, J. A., 1961, “An Investigation of Separated Flows—Part I: The Pressure Field,” J. Aerospace Sci., 28(6), pp. 457–470. Available at http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/8.9037
ESDU, 2004, “Aerodynamics and Aero-Acoustics of Rectangular Planform Cavities. Part I: Time-Averaged Flow,” Data Item No. 02008.
Khadivi, T., 2012, “Experimental and Numerical Study of Flow Structures Associated With Low Aspect Ratio Elliptical Cavities,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
Maull, D. J., and East, L. F., 1963, “Three-Dimensional Flow in Cavities,” J. Fluid Mech., 16, pp. 620–632. [CrossRef]
Haigermoser, C., Scarano, F., and Onorato, M., 2008, “Investigation of the Flow in a Rectangular Cavity Using Tomographic and Time Resolved PIV,” Proceedings of ICAS 26th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Anchorage, AK.
Brown, G. L., and Roshko, A., 1974 “On Density Effects and Large Structure in Turbulent Mixing Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 64(4), pp. 775–816. [CrossRef]
Ashcroft, G., and Zhang, X., 2005, “Vortical Structures Over Rectangular Cavities at Low Speed,” Phys. Fluids, 17, p. 015104. [CrossRef]
Haigermoser, C., Vesely, L., Novara, M., and Onorato, M., 2008, “A Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry Investigation of a Cavity Flow With a Thick Incoming Turbulent Boundary Layer,” Phys. Fluids, 20, p. 105101. [CrossRef]
Murray, N., Sällström, E., and Ukeiley, L., 2009, “Properties of Subsonic Open Cavity Flow Fields,” Phys. Fluids, 21, p. 095103. [CrossRef]
Ukeiley, L., and Murray, N., 2005, “Velocity and Surface Pressure Measurements in an Open Cavity,” Exp. Fluids, 38, pp. 656–671. [CrossRef]
Gaudet, L., and Winter, K. G., 1973, “Measurements of the Drag of Some Characteristic Aircraft Excrescences Immersed in Turbulent Boundary Layers,” Royal Aircraft Establishment, Technical Memorandum Aero.
Hiwada, M., Kawamura, T., Mabuchi, I., and Kumada, M., 1983, “Some Characteristics of Flow Pattern and Heat Transfer Past a Circular Cylindrical Cavity,” Bull. JSME, 25(220), pp. 1744–1752. [CrossRef]
Savory, E., Toy, N., and Gaudet, L., 1996, “Effect of Lip Configuration on the Drag of a Circular Cavity,” Emerging Techniques in Drag Reduction, Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd., pp. 317–335.
Dybenko, J., and Savory, E., 2008, “An Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow Over Surface Mounted Circular Cavities,” IMechE J. Aerospace Eng., 222, pp. 109–125. [CrossRef]
Savory, E., and Toy, N., 1993 “The Flows Associated With Elliptical Cavities,” Symposium on Separated Flows, ASME Fluids Engineering Conference, Washington, DC, FED Paper No. 149, pp. 95–103.
Hering, T., and Savory, E., 2007, “Flow Regimes and Drag Characteristics of Yawed Elliptical Cavities With Varying Depth,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 129(12), pp. 1577–1583. [CrossRef]
Ritchie, S. A., Lawson, N. J., and Knowles, K., 2003, “An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an Open Transonic Cavity,” 21st Applied Aerodynamics Conference, AIAA, Orlando, FL.
Haigermoser, C., Scarano, F., and Onorato, M., 2009, “Investigation of the Flow in a Circular Cavity Using Stereo and Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry,” Exp. Fluids, 46, pp. 517–526. [CrossRef]
Czech, M., Savory, E., Toy, N., and Mavrides, T., 2001, “Flow Regimes Associated With Yawed Rectangular Cavities,” Aeronaut. J., 105, pp. 125–134.
Zdanski, P. S. B., Ortega, M. A., Fico, N. G. C. R., Jr., 2003, “Numerical Study of the Flow Over Shallow Cavities,” Comput. Fluids, 32, pp. 953–974. [CrossRef]
Durteste, S., 2001, “Analysis of Cavity Drag Using Glasgow University Flow Code,” Final Year Project, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
Hering, T., Dybenko, J., and Savory, E., 2006, “Experimental Verification of CFD Modeling of Turbulent Flow Over Circular Cavities,” Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering Forum, Kananaskis, Canada.
Ferziger, J. H., and Perić, M., 1996, Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Daly, B. J., and Harlow, F. H., 1970, “Transport Equations in Turbulence,” Phys. Fluids, 13, pp. 2634–2649. [CrossRef]
Lien, F. S., and Leschziner, M. A., 1994 “Assessment of Turbulent Transport Models Including Non-Linear RNG Eddy-Viscosity Formulation and Second-Moment Closure,” Comput. Fluids, 23(8), pp. 983–1004. [CrossRef]
Launder, B. E., 1989, “Second-Moment Closure and Its Use in Modeling Turbulent Industrial Flows,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 9, pp. 963–985. [CrossRef]
Launder, B. E., 1989, “Second-Moment Closure: Present… and Future?,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 10(4), pp. 282–300. [CrossRef]
Celik, I. B., Ghia, U., Roache, P. J., Freitas, C. J., Coleman, H., and Raad, P. E., 2008, “Procedure for Estimation and Reporting of Uncertainty Due to Discretization in CFD Applications,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 130(7), p. 078001. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. E., and Choudhury, D., 1995, “A Near-Wall Treatment Using Wall Functions Sensitized to Pressure Gradient,” ASME FED Separated and Complex Flows, ASME, Vol. 217, pp. 273–279.
Hering, T., 2006, “Lift and Drag of Yawed Elliptical Cavities With Varying Depths,” M.E.Sc. thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
Saric, W. S., 1998, “Influence of High-Amplitude Noise on Boundary-Layer Transition to Turbulence,” Final Technical Report, AFOSR, No. F49620-96-1-0369.
Cower, E. A., and Monismith, S. G., 1997, “A Hybrid Digital Tracking Velocimetry Technique,” Exp. Fluids, 22, pp. 199–211. [CrossRef]
Wheeler, A., and Ganji, A., 1996, Introduction to Engineering Experimentation, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey.
Jeong, J., and Hussain, F., 1995, “On the Identification of a Vortex,” J. Fluid Mech., 285, pp. 69–94. [CrossRef]
Savory, E., Toy, N., Disimile, P. J., and Dimicco, R. G., 1993, “The Drag of Three-Dimensional Rectangular Cavities,” Appl. Sci. Res., 50, pp. 325–346. [CrossRef]
Savory, E., Yamanishi, Y., Okamoto, S., and Toy, N., 1997, “Experimental Investigation of the Wakes of Three-Dimensional Rectangular Cavities,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Kaliningrad, Russia, June, pp. 11–15.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry and boundary types

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Dimensionless (a) velocity, (b) u'u'¯, (c) v'v'¯, (d) u'v'¯ Reynolds stress profiles at the inlet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Computational grid in the cavity and the surroundings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of (a) Cp on cavity base, (b) vertical profile of u¯/Uinf at cavity center, and (c) vertical profile of u'u'¯/Uinf2 at cavity center for h/D = 1.0 with three different grids

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of Cp profiles on the centerline of the cavity base for h/D = 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic representation of the experimental setup (not to scale)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram showing the velocity profile at x/D = 0, contours of ∂u/∂y, shear layer (dashed line), and Uref vector

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of numerical and experimental values of u¯ and u'u'¯ profiles for h/D = 1.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) Vortex core position; pressure coefficient contours on cavity base, ground plane, and side walls for h/D = 1.0, (b) experiment [33], and (c) numerical simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variation of shear layer thickness with streamwise distance across the cavity opening

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Variation of the location of shear layer center with h/D

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Schematic representation of the flow structure in an elliptical cavity in the symmetric-deep flow regime

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Vortex core positions and Cp contours for h/D = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Schematic representation of the flow structure in an elliptical cavity in the symmetric-cellular structure flow regime

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Vortex core positions and Cp contours for h/D = 0.1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Schematic representation of the flow structure in an elliptical cavity in the symmetric-shallow flow regime

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison of drag coefficient increment. (The lines are added to visualize the general trend for each planform shape qualitatively. Solid line: elliptical cavity, dashed line: rectangular cavity, and dashed-dotted line: circular cavity.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Velocity deficit contours based on PIV measurements in a horizontal plane. The circular arc is due to masking of the imaging area by the joint between the base plate enclosing the cavity and the ground plate.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Quantitative comparison of velocity deficit



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In