Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Numerical Simulation of the Breakup of Elliptical Liquid Jet in Still Air

[+] Author and Article Information
Ehsan Farvardin

e-mail: e_farva@encs.concordia.ca

Ali Dolatabadi

Associate Professor
e-mail: ali.dolatabadi@concordia.ca
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Concordia University,
Montreal, QC, H3G 1M8, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Fluids Engineering. Manuscript received October 15, 2012; final manuscript received March 4, 2013; published online May 17, 2013. Assoc. Editor: John Abraham.

J. Fluids Eng 135(7), 071302 (May 17, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-12-1515; doi: 10.1115/1.4024081 History: Received October 15, 2012; Revised March 04, 2013

The numerical simulation of liquid jets ejecting from a set of elliptical orifices with different aspect ratios between 1 (circular) and 3.85 is performed for several Weber numbers, ranging from 15 to 330. The axis-switching phenomenon and breakup length of the jets are characterized by means of a volume of fluid (VOF) method, together with a dynamic mesh refinement model. This three-dimensional simulation is compared with a recent experimental work and the results agree well. It is concluded that for Weber numbers ranging from 15 to 100, by increasing the Weber number, the breakup length of the liquid jet increases, reaches a peak, and then decreases suddenly.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ohnesorge, W., 1936, “Formation of Drops by Nozzles and the Breakup of Liquid Jets,” Z. Angew. Math. Mech., 16, pp. 355–358. [CrossRef]
Rayleigh, L., 1879, “On the Capillary Phenomena of Jets,” Proc. R. Soc. London, 29, pp. 71–97. [CrossRef]
Dumouchel, C., 2008, “On the Experimental Investigation on Primary Atomization of Liquid Streams,” Exp. Fluids, 45, pp. 371–422. [CrossRef]
Amini, G., and Dolatabadi, A., 2011, “Capillary Instability of Elliptic Liquid Jets,” Phys. Fluids, 23, p. 084109. [CrossRef]
Husain, H. S., and Hussain, F., 1993, “Elliptic Jets—Part 3: Dynamics of Preferred Mode Coherent Structure,” J. Fluid Mech., 248, pp. 315–361. [CrossRef]
Kasyap, T. V., Sivakumar, D., and Raghunandan, B. N., 2009, “Flow and Breakup Characteristics of Elliptical Liquid Jets,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35, pp. 8–19. [CrossRef]
Dityakin, Y. F., 1954, “On the Stability and Breakup Into Drops of a Liquid Jet of Elliptical Cross Section,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Otdel. Tekhn Nauk, 10, pp. 124–130.
Bechtel, S. E., Forest, M. G., Holm, D. D., and Lin, K. J., 1988, “1-D Closure Models for 3-D Incompressible Viscoelastic Free Jets: Von Karman Flow Geometry and Elliptical Cross Section,” J. Fluid Mech., 196, pp. 241–262. [CrossRef]
Bechtel, S. E., 1989, “The Oscillation of Slender Elliptical Inviscid and Newtonian Jets: Effects of Surface Tension, Inertia, Viscosity and Gravity,” J. App. Mech., 56, pp. 968–974. [CrossRef]
Geer, J., and Strikwerda, J. C., 1983, “Vertical Slender Jets With Surface Tension,” J. Fluid Mech., 135, pp. 155–169. [CrossRef]
Caulk, D. A., and Naghdi, P. M., 1979, “On the Onset of Breakup in Inviscid and Viscous Jets,” J. Appl. Mech., 46, pp. 291–297. [CrossRef]
Caulk, D. A., and Naghdi, P. M., 1977, “The Influence of Twist on the Motion of A Straight Elliptical Jet,” Report No. UCB/AM- 77-5, Univ. Calif., Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
Amini, G., and Dolatabadi, A., 2012, “Axis-Switching and Breakup of Low-Speed Elliptic Liquid Jets,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 42, pp. 96–103. [CrossRef]
Amini, G., 2011, “Instability of Elliptic Liquid Jets,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.
Brown, E. F., and Boris, J. P., 1990, “A Numerical Simulation of Circular and Elliptic Free Jets,” Division of Fluid Dynamics, American Physical Society, 43rd Annual Meeting, Ithaca, NY.
Miller, R. S., Madnia, C. K., and Givi, P., 1995, “Numerical Simulation of Non-Circular Jets,” Comput. Fluids, 24(1), pp. 1–25. [CrossRef]
Pan, Y., and Suga, K., 2006, “A Numerical Study of the Breakup Process of Laminar Liquid Jets into a Gas,” Phys. Fluids, 18, pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]
Reitz, R. D., 1978, “Atomization and Other Breakup Regimes of a Liquid Jet,” Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, NJ.
Rusche, H., 2002, “Computational Fluid Dynamics of Dispersed Two Phase Flows at High Phase Fractions,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College, University of London.
Spyrou, N., Choi, D., Sadiki, A., and Janicka, J., 2010, “Large Eddy Simulation of the Breakup of a Kerosene Jet in Crossflow,” 7th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, Tampa, FL.
Yoshizawa, A., and Horiuti, K., 1985, “A Statistically-Derived Sub-Grid Scale Model for the Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 54, pp. 2834–2839. [CrossRef]
Bohr, N., 1909, “Determination of Dynamic Surface Tension by the Method of Jet Vibration,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 209, pp. 281–317. [CrossRef]
Weber, C. Z., 1931, “On the Breakdown of a Liquid Jet,” Z. Angew Math. Mech., 11, pp. 136–154. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Different breakup regimes of liquid jet in still air (Dumouchel [3])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic sketches of an elliptical liquid jet discharging from an elliptical orifice (a), jet appearance in the major axis plane of the elliptical orifice, and (b) jet appearance in the minor axis plane of the elliptical orifice

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Simulation geometry schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of VOF method on computational cells

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Dynamic mesh refinement cut off (right) and initial mesh cut off (left)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cut off images of elliptical water jets ejected from orifice E2 (3) at We0.5 = 10.5, (a) and (c) experimental, courtesy of Amini, (b) and (d) numerical simulation iso-surfaces (α = 0.5), at different times

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Nondimensionalized axis-switching wavelength versus the Weber number square root

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of orifice geometry on nondimensionalized axis-switching wavelength versus axis-switching number (defined according to Fig. 2) for We0.5 = 6 (experimental) and We0.5 = 5.45 (numerical)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of Weber number (We0.5) on nondimensionalized axis-switching wavelength versus axis-switching number (defined according to Fig. 2) for orifice E2 (3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Numerical and experimental [4] breakup length for orifice E2 (3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Breakup length sensitivity to number of mesh refinement levels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of LES and k-ε turbulence model on the simulation results, We = 110



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In