Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Flow Field and Turbulence Characterization of a Counter Impinging Jet Reactor Using Particle Image Velocimetry

[+] Author and Article Information
Victor A. Miller

Thermosciences Division,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: vamiller@stanford.edu

Mirko Gamba

Department of Aerospace Engineering,
The University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: mirkog@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Fluids Engineering. Manuscript received January 31, 2013; final manuscript received June 24, 2013; published online July 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Mark F. Tachie.

J. Fluids Eng 135(9), 091203 (Jul 22, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1067; doi: 10.1115/1.4024893 History: Received January 31, 2013; Revised June 24, 2013

We characterize the three dimensional structure and quantify turbulence quantities in a counter-impinging jet reactor with trapezoidal cross-section to test the feasibility of achieving stratified mixing. Dye flow-visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) velocity field measurements are made in the inlet section of the reactor. Two-component velocity measurements are made on three sets of orthogonal planes for Rej = 1000, 1800, 2600, and 3700; the overall structure of the flow field is found to be qualitatively similar for the Reynolds numbers studied, but the precise trajectory of the mean flow is found to be sensitive to inflow boundary conditions. Reynolds stresses and anisotropic invariants are calculated; the turbulent kinetic energy decreases linearly with increasing distance downstream in the reactor and it decreases at the same relative rate for all Reynolds numbers studied; anisotropic invariants and Reynolds stress maps indicate a turbulent stress state that tends toward isotropy downstream of the inlets. Turbulent stress maps indicate that the Reynolds stress components are stratified in the reactor channel, becoming uniform as a function of z by y/Dh = 4.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the CIJR with the dimensions of the system and experimental configuration used in the study. The red dot on the 3D rendering corresponds to the coordinate system origin.

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Fig. 2

Schematic of dye flow visualization. Two injection ports are located 2.5 cm from the channel centerline and at the midplane of the channel.

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Fig. 3

Schematic depiction of the PIV imaging planes: (i) top-view of planes A, B, and C; (ii) end-view of planes Ae, Be, Ce, and De; (iii) side view of plane Z

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Fig. 4

Instantaneous and time-average flow-visualization

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Fig. 5

(a) Top-view mean flow fields for Rej = 2600; every other vector is displayed. The coordinate axes are nondimensionalized by the hydraulic diameter Dh = 4A/P of the inlet jet. The unit-length vector corresponds to 1.5 m/s velocity. Streamlines are also included to highlight the recirculation zones (shown in blue and green) and the trajectory of the bulk flow (red). (b) End-view mean vector fields for Rej = 2600. Every other vector is displayed. The unit-length vector corresponds to 0.5 m/s velocity. The locations of the planes are y/Dh = 0.25 (Ae), 1.6(Be), 2.9(Ce), and 4.1(De).

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Fig. 6

Schematic depiction of the overall flowfield

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Fig. 7

Inlet velocity profiles at x = 1.25Dh for Rej = 2600 on Plane C

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Fig. 8

The v velocity spanning the channel at y/Dh = 3.5. (a) The right inlet (x < 0) has an increased flow rate, and (b) the left inlet (x > 0) has an increased flow rate.

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Fig. 9

Reynolds stress maps for u′u′ and v′v′ for the top view. The horizontal line at y = 2.4 is the mating line between the two simultaneous views.

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Fig. 10

Reynolds stress maps for u′v′ for the top view. Note that this figure has a different scale than Fig. 9.

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Fig. 11

(a) Average absolute TKE as a function of the Reynolds number at y/Dh = 1.60, and (b) average normalized TKE as a function of the y-location and Rej

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Fig. 12

Anisotropic turbulent stress invariants as a function of the Reynolds number. Invariants are plotted for those on the intersection of planes B and Z with Be, Ce, and De.



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