Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Model for Predicting Drag Torque in Open Multi-Disks Wet Clutches

[+] Author and Article Information
Shoaib Iqbal

e-mail: shoaib.iqbal@mech.kuleuven.be

Farid Al-Bender

e-mail: farid.al-bender@mech.kuleuven.be

Bert Pluymers

e-mail: bert.pluymers@mech.kuleuven.be

Wim Desmet

e-mail: wim.desmet@mech.kuleuven.be

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Division PMA, Katholieke Universitiet Leuven Celestijnenlaan
300B BOX 2420,
Heverlee BE-3001, Belgium

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 15, 2013; final manuscript received August 20, 2013; published online December 9, 2013. Assoc. Editor: D. Keith Walters.

J. Fluids Eng 136(2), 021103 (Dec 09, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1241; doi: 10.1115/1.4025650 History: Received April 15, 2013; Revised August 20, 2013

A mathematical model based on continuity and Navier-Stokes equations, considering laminar flow in the gap between the disks, is presented to estimate the drag torque in open multidisks wet clutches. By taking into account the effects of Poiseuille and centrifugal forces, the flow pressure and velocity fields are investigated. The model quantifies the volume fraction of fluids and predicts the evolution of film shape. The drag torque estimated by the model is the sum of drag torque due to shearing of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) and the mist (suspension of ATF in air) film. In order to validate the model, experiments are performed on SAE# 2 test-setup under actual operating conditions of clutches. The model is capable of predicting the drag torque under conditions of variable flow rate and different disks rotational state for higher clutch speed range.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of an open wet clutch

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Fig. 2

Schematic of (a) clutch geometry (single-pair of disks) and (b) flow configuration

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the flow configuration (cross sectional view) and the corresponding pressure distribution. (a) low-speed region, (b) mid-speed region, and (c) high-speed region.

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Fig. 4

Film shape (considering orientation of fluid layers in the radial direction). (a) complete film and (b) a sector of the film

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Fig. 5

Actual film shape (a) a sector and (b) complete film

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Fig. 6

SAE#2 test setup (a) schematic diagram and (b) hydraulic circuit

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Fig. 7

Variation of flow rate with speed

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Fig. 8

Estimated theoretical and true pressure profile at speed of (a) 500 rpm, (b) 650 rpm, and (c) 850 rpm

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Fig. 9

Predicted film shape at speed of (a) 500 rpm, (b) 650 rpm (radial flow direction), (c) 650 rpm (actual flow direction), and (d) 850 rpm (actual flow direction)

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Fig. 10

(a) critical radius and (b) experimental and simulation drag torque

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Fig. 11

Experimental and simulated drag torque for ATF temperature of (a) 60  °C and (b) 80  °C

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Fig. 12

Experimental and simulated drag torque for ATF flow rate (initial value) (a) 2.0 Lmin−1 and (b) 3.2 Lmin−1

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Fig. 13

Experimental and simulated drag torque for (a) stationary SD's, while FD's rotates and (b) SD's and FD's rotating with same speed but in opposite direction



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