Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Development and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Models for Initial Stages of Cavitation

[+] Author and Article Information
Eduard Amromin

Mechmath LLC,
Federal Way, WA 98003

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 26, 2013; final manuscript received February 5, 2014; published online May 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Olivier Coutier-Delgosha.

J. Fluids Eng 136(8), 081303 (May 19, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1520; doi: 10.1115/1.4026883 History: Received August 26, 2013; Revised February 05, 2014

Various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models employed for cavitating flows are substantially based on semi-empirical assumptions about cavitation forms and liquid flows around cavitating bodies. Therefore, the model applicability must be validated with experimental data. The stages of validation of the models are analyzed here with data on cavitating hydrofoils and axisymmetric bodies in water. Results of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS), large-eddy simulation (LES), detached-eddy simulation (DES), and viscous-inviscid interaction methods are compared. The necessity of simultaneous validation of several flow parameters (as cavitation inception number and location of the appearing cavity) is pointed out. Typical uncertainties in water tunnel model test data (water quality, simplified account of wall effect) and possibilities to take them into account are also discussed. The provided comparison with experimental data manifests the impossibility to describe initial stages of cavitating flows using any single model and importance of employment of a combination of models for both the cavitation zones and the flow outside of cavities.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Knapp, R. T., Daily, J. W., and Hammitt, F. G., 1970, Cavitation, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Amromin, E. L., Briancon-Marjollet, L., and Vaciliev, A. V., 1994, “Sheet Cavitation: Comparison Between Measured and Calculated Length,” Proceedings of the International Shipbuilding Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Pellone, C., and Rowe, A., 1988, “Effect of Separation on Partial Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 110, pp. 182–189. [CrossRef]
Arakeri, V. H., 1975, “Viscous Effects on the Position of Cavitation Separation From Smooth Bodies,” J. Fluid Mech., 68, pp. 779–799. [CrossRef]
Rowe, A., and Blottiaux, O., 1993, “Aspects of Modeling Partially Cavitating Flows,” J. Ship Res., 37, pp. 34–48.
Holl, J. W., and Billet, M. L., 1981, “Scale Effects on Various Types of Limited Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 103, pp. 405–414. [CrossRef]
Franc, J. P., and Michel, J. M., 1985, “Attached Cavitation and the Boundary Layer. Experimental Investigation and Numerical Treatment,” J. Fluid Mech., 154, pp. 63–90. [CrossRef]
Keller., A. P., 2001, “Cavitation Scale Effects Empirically Found Relations and the Correlation of Cavitation Number and Hydrodynamic Coefficients,” Proceedings of the Cav-2001 Symposium, Pasadena, CA.
Amromin, E. L., 1985, “Cavitation Flow Calculation for a Viscous Capillary Fluid,” Fluid Dyn., 20, pp. 891–897.
Amromin, E. L., 2007, “Determination of Cavity Detachment for Sheet Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 129, pp. 1105–1111. [CrossRef]
Stern, F., Yang, J., Wang, Z., Sadat-Hosseini, H., Mousaviraad, M., Bhushan, S., and Xing, T., 2012, “Computational Ship Hydrodynamics: Nowadays and Way Forward,” Proceedings of the 29th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Kinnas, S. I., 1998, “The Prediction of Unsteady Sheet Cavitation,” Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Cavitation, Grenoble, France.
Williams, M., Kawakami, E., Amromin, E., and Arndt, R., 2009, “Effect of Surface Characteristics on Hydrofoil Cavitation,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Cavitation, Ann Arbor, MI.
Arndt, R. E. A., Amromin, E. L., and D Hambleton, W. T., 2009, “Cavitation Inception in the Wake of a Jet-Driven Body,” ASME J. Fluids. Eng., 131(11), p. 111302. [CrossRef]
Kubota, A., Kato, H., and Yamagushi, H., 1992, “A New Modeling of Cavitating Flows: A Numerical Study of Unsteady Cavitation of a Hydrofoil Section,” J. Fluid Mech., 240, pp. 59–96. [CrossRef]
Coutier-Delgosha, O., Devillers, J -F., Pichon, T., Vabre, A., Woo, R., and Legoupil, S., 2006, “Internal Structure and Dynamics of Sheet Cavitation,” Phys. Fluids, 16, p. 017103. [CrossRef]
Wu, X., and Chahine, G. L., 2007, “Characterization of the Content of the Cavity Behind a High-Speed Supercavitating Body,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 129, pp. 136–145. [CrossRef]
Coutier-Delgosha, O., Deniset, F., Astolfi, J. A., and Leroux, J.-B., 2007, “Numerical Prediction of Cavitating Flow on a Two-Dimensional Symmetrical Hydrofoil and Comparison to Experiments,” ASME J. Fluids Eng.,129, pp. 279–292. [CrossRef]
Riesman, G. F., Wang, Y.-C., and Brennen, C. E., 1998, “Observation of Shock Waves in Cloud Cavitation,” J. Fluid Mech., 355, pp. 255–283. [CrossRef]
Kim, S.-E., 2009, “A Numerical Study of Unsteady Cavitation on a Hydrofoil,” Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Cavitation, Ann Arbor, MI.
Leder, A. T., and Ceccio, S. L., 1998, “Examination of the Flow Near the Leading Edge of Attached Cavitation. Part 1: Detachment of Two-Dimensional and Axisymmetric Cavities,” J. Fluid Mech., 376, pp. 61–90. [CrossRef]
Kunz, R. F., Boger, D. A., Stinebring, D. R., Chyczewski, T. S., Lindau, J. W., Gibeling, H. J., Venkateawaran, S., and Govindan, T. R., 2000, “A Preconditioned Navier–Stokes Method for Two-Phase Flows With Application to Cavitation Prediction,” Comput. Fluids, 29, pp. 849–875. [CrossRef]
Ahuja, V., Hosangadi, A., and Arunajatesan, S., 2001, “Simulation of Cavitating Flows Using Hybrid Unstructured Meshes,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 123, pp. 331–338. [CrossRef]
Singhal, A. K., Athavale, M. M., Li, H., and Jiang, Y., 2002, “Mathematical Basis and Validation of the Full Cavitation Model,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 124, pp. 617–624. [CrossRef]
Kuiper, G., 1981, Cavitation Inception on Ship Propeller Models, Netherlands Ship Model Basin, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Amromin, E. L., 2013, “Analysis of the Airfoil Stall With a Modification of Viscous-Inviscid Interaction Concept,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 135(5), p. 051105. [CrossRef]
Simpson, R. L., 1989, “Turbulent Boundary Layer Separation,” Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 21, pp. 205–234. [CrossRef]
Amromin, E. L., 2007, “Analysis of Vortex Core in Steady Turbulent Flow,” Phys. Fluids, 19, p. 118108. [CrossRef]
Chesnakas, C. J., and Jessup, C. D., 2003, “Tip-Vortex Induced Cavitation on a Ducted Propulsor,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM 2003-45320.
Agarwal, A., 2010, “Analysis of Vortex Core in Turbulent Flow,” Proceedings of the 37th National and 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, Madras, India.
Katz, J., 1984, “Cavitation Phenomena Within Regions of Flow Separation,” J. Fluid Mech., 140, pp. 397–436. [CrossRef]
Kermeen, R. W., 1956, “Water Tunnel Tests of NACA 4412 and Walchner 7 Profile Hydrofoils in Noncavitating and Cavitating Flows,” Hydrodynamic Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, Report No. 47-5.
Arndt, R. E. A., and Keller, A., 1992, “Water Quality Effects on Cavitation Inception in a Trailing Vortex,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 114, pp. 430–438. [CrossRef]
Brennen, C. E., 1995, Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics, Oxford University, New York.
France, J. P., and Michel, J. M., 2005, Fundamentals of Cavitation, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
van der Meulen, J. H. J., 1980, “Boundary Layer and Cavitation Studies of NACA 16-012 and NACA 4412 Hydrofoils,” Proceedings of the 13th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Tokyo, Japan.
Blake, W. K., 1986, Mechanics of Flow-Induced Sound and Vibration, Academic Press, New York.
Jessup, S. D., and Wang, H. C., 1997, “Propeller Design and Evaluation of a High Speed Patrol Boat Incorporating Iterative Analysis With Panel Method,” Proceedings of the Propeller/Shafting 1997 Symposium, Virginia Beach, VA.
Gorshkov, A. S., and Kalashnikov, Y. N., 1970, “The Scale Effect on Incipient Stage of Cavitation on Body of Revolution,” Trans. Krylov Ship Res. Inst., 258, pp. 40–53 (in Russian).
Matsunari, H., Watanabe, S., Konishi, Y., Suefuji, N., and Furukawa, A., 2012, “Experimental/Numerical Study on Cavitating Flow Around Clark Y11.7% Hydrofoil,” Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Cavitation, Singapore, pp. 358–363.
Kim, S.-E., and Schroeder, S., 2010, “Numerical Study of Thrust-Breakdown Due to Cavitation on a Hydrofoil, a Propeller, and a Waterjet,” Proceedings of the 28th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Pasadena, CA.
Kopriva, J., Amromin, E. L., Arndt, R. E. A., Wosnik, M., and Kovinskaya, S. I., 2007, “High Performance Partially Cavitating Hydrofoils,” J. Ship Res., 51, pp. 313–320.
Ihara, A., Watanabe, H., and Shizukuishi, S., 1989, “Experimental Research of the Effect of Sweep on Unsteady Hydrofoil Loading in Cavitation,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 109, pp. 263–270. [CrossRef]
Astolfi, J. A., Dorange, P., Billard, J. Y., and Cid Tomas, I., 2000, “An Experimental Investigation of Cavitation Inception and Development on a Two-Dimensional Eppler Hydrofoil,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 122, pp. 164–173. [CrossRef]
Garo, R., and Imas, L., 2012, “Hydrodynamic Performance of a Submerged Lifting Surface Operating at High Speed,” Proceedings of the 4th High Performance Yacht Design Conference.
Amromin, E. L., Vaciliev, A. V., and Syrkin, E. N., 1995, “Propeller Blade Cavitation Inception Prediction and Problems of Blade Geometry Optimization: Recent Research at the Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute,” J. Ship Res., 39, pp. 202–212.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cavity length oscillations on hydrofoils NACA16009 (from Ref. [2]) and NACA0010 (from Ref. [3])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Scheme of sheet cavitation in viscous fluid; the point of cavity surface contact to the body is either C (for completely hydrophilic body surface) or B (for partially hydrophobic body surface)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Snapshot of cavitation behind a self-driven body

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Scheme of flow over a propeller model blade: AB is the laminar separation curve, and CD is the laminar-turbulent transition curve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Measured and computed with VII solver boundary layer reattachment abscissa behind laminar separation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of measured velocities in the vortex cores (symbols) with theoretical solutions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Measurements (triangles) and RANS results (filed squares) [26] for vortex cavitation downstream of a ducted propulsor in comparison with results [30] (empty squares) employed Eq. (3)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Computed pressure over the suction side of hydrofoil Cav2009 at CL = 0.65 and α = 7 deg in two channels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of water quality on definition of σ in Caltech water tunnel experiments [32] with NACA4412

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Computed (C-D from Ref. [18]; A by author) and observed appearing cavity on hydrofoil Cav2003

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Cavitation inception and desinence numbers for Cav2003 (C-D computed in Ref. [18]; A by author)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Dependencies of σD (solid line: VII computation, solid triangles: measured), measured σI (clear triangles) and computed σI (dashed line) for NACA4412 at Re = 1.09 × 106

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Cavitation inception and desinence numbers on bodies with hemispherical heads; experimental data [6] are marked as 5HB, data [39] as 12GG, and 40GG, data [31] as 5 K. Numbers and computational curves [10] show corresponding values of D (in cm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Computed with RANS and measured lift coefficient of 2D hydrofoil Clark Y11.7

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Computed [42] with VII and measured [38] lift coefficient of 3D swept hydrofoil Clark Y11.7

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

View of OK-2003 (its trailing edge is in the left) and its drag coefficient (in the right; computed: lines, measured: symbols) at two α

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Computed (lines) and measured (symbols) lift coefficient of hydrofoil OK-2003 at two α; Re = 8 × 105



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In