Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Influence of Vegetation on Turbulence Characteristics and Reynolds Shear Stress in Partly Vegetated Channel

[+] Author and Article Information
Huayong Zhang

Research Center for Engineering Ecology
and Nonlinear Science,
North China Electric Power University,
Beijing 102206, China
e-mail: rceens@ncepu.edu.cn

Zhongyu Wang

Research Center for Engineering Ecology
and Nonlinear Science,
North China Electric Power University,
Beijing 102206, China
Industrial Systems Engineering,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
e-mail: zhy_wang@163.com

Liming Dai

Fellow ASME
Industrial Systems Engineering,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
e-mail: liming.dai@uregina.ca

Weigang Xu

Institute of Wetland Research,
Chinese Academy of Forestry,
Beijing 100091, China
e-mail: xuweigang@foxmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 19, 2013; final manuscript received January 12, 2015; published online March 4, 2015. Editor: Malcolm J. Andrews.

J. Fluids Eng 137(6), 061201 (Jun 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-13-1678; doi: 10.1115/1.4029608 History: Received November 19, 2013; Revised January 12, 2015; Online March 04, 2015

From the perspective of vegetation density, this research studies the influence of vegetation on turbulence characteristics and Reynolds shear stress in partly vegetated channel via a series of experiments. Natural reed is employed to simulate the emergent vegetation in rivers. Different vegetation densities including vegetated and unvegetated cases are considered in the research. The results of the research demonstrate that emergent vegetation may force the water flowing from vegetated areas to unvegetated areas and the forcing intensity increases with reed density. It is also found that the relative turbulence intensity declines along the vegetated channel in the direction of flow. Vegetation is found to reduce the total-average Reynolds shear stress therefore reduce the soil erosion. However, the Reynolds shear stress reduction is found disproportional to the vegetation density, and an optimal vegetation density range is quantitatively determined in the research. The findings of the research are significant to the practice of river ecological restoration.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Fathi-Maghadam, M., and Kouwen, N., 1997, “Nonrigid, Nonsubmerged, Vegetative Roughness on Floodplains,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 123(1), pp. 51–57. [CrossRef]
López, F., and García, M. H., 2001, “Mean Flow and Turbulence Structure of Open-Channel Flow Through Non-Emergent Vegetation,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 127(5), pp. 392–402. [CrossRef]
Schultz, M. P., 2000, “Turbulent Boundary Layers on Surfaces Covered With Filamentous Algae,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 122(2), pp. 357–363. [CrossRef]
Nikora, N., Nikora, V., and O'Donoghue, T., 2013, “Velocity Profiles in Vegetated Open-Channel Flows: Combined Effects of Multiple Mechanisms,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 139(10), pp. 1021–1032. [CrossRef]
Jack, E. A., Wafaa, S. K., and Ghanem, F. O., 2011, “Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in the Wake of a Cactus-Shaped Cylinder,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(9), p. 094502. [CrossRef]
Musleh, F. A., and Cruise, J. F., 2006, “Functional Relationships of Resistance in Wide Flood Plains With Rigid Unsubmerged Vegetation,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 132(2), pp. 163–171. [CrossRef]
Martino, R., Paterson, A., and Piva, M., 2014, “Water Level Rise Upstream a Permeable Barrier in Subcritical Flow: Experiment and Modeling,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(4), p. 041103. [CrossRef]
Green, J. C., 2005, “Velocity and Turbulence Distribution Around Lotic Macrophytes,” Aquat. Ecol., 39(1), pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Nepf, H. M., 1999, “Drag, Turbulence, and Diffusion in Flow Through Emergent Vegetation,” Water Resour. Res., 35(2), pp. 479–489. [CrossRef]
McBride, M., Hession, W. C., Rizzo, D. M., and Thompson, D. M., 2007, “The Influence of Riparian Vegetation on Near-Bank Turbulence: A Flume Experiment,” Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 32(13), pp. 2019–2037. [CrossRef]
Velasco, D., Bateman, A., Redondo, J. M., and Demedina, V., 2003, “An Open Channel Flow Experimental and Theoretical Study of Resistance and Turbulent Characterization Over Flexible Vegetated Linings,” Flow Turbul. Combust., 70(1–4), pp. 69–88. [CrossRef]
Afzalimehr, H., and Dey, S., 2009, “Influence of Bank Vegetation and Gravel Bed on Velocity and Reynolds Stress Distributions,” Int. J. Sediment Res., 24(2), pp. 236–246. [CrossRef]
Neary, V. S., Constantinescu, S. G., Bennett, S. J., and Diplas, P., 2012, “Effects of Vegetation on Turbulence, Sediment Transport, and Stream Morphology,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 138(9), pp. 765–776. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. Y., and Dai, L. M., 2009, “Surface Runoff and Its Erosion Energy in a Partially Continuous System: An Ecological Hydraulic Model,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2009-10607. [CrossRef]
Aupoix, B., 2015, “Roughness Corrections for the kω Shear Stress Transport Model: Status and Proposals,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 137(2), p. 021202. [CrossRef]
Chow, V. T., 1959, Open-Channel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, New York, Chap. 9.
Liu, C., and Shen, Y. M., 2008, “Flow Structure and Sediment Transport With Impacts of Aquatic Vegetation,” J. Hydrodyn., Ser. B, 20(4), pp. 461–468. [CrossRef]
Nepf, H. M., and Vivoni, E. R., 2000, “Flow Structure in Depth-Limited, Vegetated Flow,” J. Geophys. Res., 105(C12), pp. 28547–28557. [CrossRef]
Allmendinger, N. E., Pizzuto, J. E., Potter, N., Johnson, T. E., and Hession, W. C., 2005, “The Influence of Riparian Vegetation on Stream Width, Eastern Pennsylvania, USA,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 117(1–2), pp. 229–243. [CrossRef]
Rowiński, P. M., and Kubrak, J., 2002, “A Mixing-Length Model for Predicting Vertical Velocity Distribution in Flows Through Emergent Vegetation,” Hydrolog. Sci. J., 47(6), pp. 893–904. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental flume setup: (a) side view and (b) plan view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental material and stem diameter distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Measuring equipment with the ADVs and steel frame

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of flow depth, Reynolds number, and Froude number relate to flow discharge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Velocity distribution along five longitudinal-sections

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of relative turbulence intensity along five longitudinal-sections

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation of Reynolds shear stress along five longitudinal-sections: (a) 0 stems/m2, (b) 54 stems/m2, (c) 108 stems/m2, and (d) 202 stems/m2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of average Reynolds shear stress with vegetation density



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In