Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Validation of Particle-Laden Turbulent Flow Simulations Including Turbulence Modulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Yvonne Reinhardt

Institute of Fluid Dynamics,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: reinhardt@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch

Leonhard Kleiser

Institute of Fluid Dynamics,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 29, 2014; final manuscript received February 17, 2015; published online March 19, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Francine Battaglia.

J. Fluids Eng 137(7), 071303 (Jul 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: FE-14-1542; doi: 10.1115/1.4029838 History: Received September 29, 2014; Revised February 17, 2015; Online March 19, 2015

The objective of the present numerical study is the validation of wall-bounded, turbulent particle-laden air flow simulations for a wide range of flow and particle parameters (i.e., flow and particle Reynolds numbers, Stokes number, particle-to-fluid density ratio, ratio of particle diameter to turbulent length scale) covering the one-, two- and four-way coupling regimes. The applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model follows the Eulerian two-fluid approach in a Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) context and is based on the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) for closures concerning the particulate phase. The fluid turbulence is modeled applying a low-Reynolds-number k–epsilon turbulence model. The main focus is put on the modeling of turbulence coupling between the fluid and the particle phase. Different from common practice, the choice of a model accounting for turbulence modulation is made dependent on the prevailing coupling regime. For the case of four-way coupling, a new modulation model is suggested that well predicts turbulence augmentation and attenuation. The predictive capabilities of the present approach are evaluated by comparing simulation results to experimental benchmark data of various pipe and channel flows. Very good agreement with reference data is obtained for the mean flow and turbulence profiles of both phases.

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Fig. 1

Effect of model coefficients Cu and Cε3 (test case C.2)

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Fig. 2

Computational domain for fully developed pipe flow simulations

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Fig. 6

Mean velocity and turbulence profiles of air and particles, together with the particle distribution for case B.1. Solid line: simulation results, symbols: experimental data of Ref. [5].

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Fig. 7

Air turbulence profiles for (a) case B.2 and (b) case B.3. Symbols indicate experimental data, the solid line shows present simulation results applying the standard modulation model, Eq. (17). Simulations with the new modulation model, Eq. (18), are shown as a dashed line.

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Fig. 4

Air velocity in wall coordinates and air turbulence. Symbols indicate experimental data [7], the dashed line is LES data [39], and the solid line shows the present simulation results.

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Fig. 5

Velocity and turbulence profiles of air and particles for case A.1. Solid line: simulation results, symbols: experimental data of Ref. [7].

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Fig. 3

Element distribution in wall-normal direction for case C.2. The position of the cell centers is indicated by dots and can be read in wall units y+ and global units y/R. The subfigure shows a zoom of the viscous sublayer y+ < 5.

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Fig. 8

Velocity and turbulence distribution of fluid and particle phase together with the particle distribution of case C.2. Solid line: present simulation, symbols: experimental data from Ref. [2].

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Fig. 9

Air turbulence profiles for cases C.1 (a), C.3 (b), C.4 (c), and C.5 (d). Symbols indicate experimental data, the solid line shows present simulation results.



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