Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car at Yaw Angle and Two-Vehicle Platoon

[+] Author and Article Information
Armagan Altinisik

Turkish Automotive Factory, Inc. Company
Yeni Yalova Yolu Cad. No: 574,
Bursa 16369, Turkey
e-mail: armagan.altinisik@tofas.com.tr

Onur Yemenici

Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Uludag University,
Gorukle Campus,
Bursa 16059, Turkey

Habib Umur

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Faculty of Engineering,
Uludag University,
Gorukle Campus,
Bursa 16059, Turkey

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 29, 2015; final manuscript received June 5, 2015; published online August 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Francine Battaglia.

J. Fluids Eng 137(12), 121107 (Aug 04, 2015) Paper No: FE-15-1219; doi: 10.1115/1.4030869 History: Received March 29, 2015

Experimental and computational studies were performed to study the drag forces and the pressure distributions of a one-fifth scale model FIAT Linea at increasing yaw angle and two-vehicle platoon. Experiments were performed in the Uludag University Wind Tunnel (UURT) only for the yaw angles of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg due to the test section dimensional restriction. Supplementary tests were performed in the Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART) to evaluate the aerodynamic coefficients up to yaw angle of 40 deg. The test section blockage ratios were 20% and 1%, respectively, in the UURT and ART tunnels. The blockage effects for the yaw angles up to 10 deg were studied by the comparison of two wind tunnel results. The aerodynamic tests of two-vehicle platoon were performed in the ART tunnel at spacings of “x/L” 0, 0.5, and 1. Static pressure distributions were obtained from the model centerline and three vertical sections. In the numerical study, three-dimensional, incompressible, and steady governing equations were solved by star-ccm+ code with realizable k-ɛ two-layer turbulence model. Experimental and numerical Cp distributions and Cd values were found in good agreement for considered yaw angles and two-vehicle platoon. Maximum drag coefficient was obtained at yaw angle of 35 deg for both experimental and numerical calculations. The two-vehicle platoon analysis resulted with the significant drag coefficient improvement for the leading car at spacings of x/L  = 0 and 0.5, while for the tail car drag coefficient remained slightly above the vehicle in isolation.

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Fig. 1

(a) Dimensions of one-fifth scale model and (b) positions and quantities of the pressure holes

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Fig. 2

Scaled view of one-fifth model in UURT test section at yaw angles of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg

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Fig. 3

The y+ distributions on the model wall surfaces

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Fig. 4

Midsection of the computational domains for β= 30 deg and x/L = 0 close spacing

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Fig. 5

UURT and ART model centerline pressure distributions at yaw angles of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg

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Fig. 6

(a) CFD pressure distributions on the model centerline at increasing yaw angles and (b) comparison of the CFD and the experimental results at yaw angles of 10 deg and 30 deg

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Fig. 7

(a) CFD pressure contours at yaw angles up to 40 deg and (b) tuft test at yaw angle of 30 deg

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Fig. 8

UURT and ART pressure distributions on vertical sections at yaw angles of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg

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Fig. 9

ART pressure distributions on vertical sections at yaw angles up to 30 deg

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Fig. 10

(a) Schematic view of the model at yaw angle and (b) typical normalized drag coefficient at increasing yaw angle

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the drag coefficients Cd with increasing yaw angles β

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Fig. 12

CFD pressure contours at vehicle spacings of x/L  = 0, 0.5, and 1.0

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the CFD and experimental centerline Cp distributions at close spacings

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Fig. 14

Drag coefficients of two-vehicle platoon at close spacings



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