Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamics and Flowfield of a NACA 0015 Airfoil Over a Wavy Ground

[+] Author and Article Information
T. Lee, V. Tremblay-Dionne

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
Montreal, QC H3A 2K6, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 1, 2017; final manuscript received January 17, 2018; published online March 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Moran Wang.

J. Fluids Eng 140(7), 071202 (Mar 13, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1555; doi: 10.1115/1.4039236 History: Received September 01, 2017; Revised January 17, 2018

The aerodynamic properties and flowfield of a NACA 0015 airfoil over a wavy ground were investigated experimentally via surface pressure and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Flat-surface results were also obtained to be served as a comparison. For the wavy ground, there exhibited a cyclic variation in the sectional lift coefficient Cl over an entire wavelength. The maximum Cl observed at the wave peak (produced by the wavy ground-induced RAM pressure) and minimum Cl occurred at the wave valley (resulting from the unusual suction pressure developed on the airfoil's lower surface due to the converging-diverging flow passage developed underneath it) reduced with increasing ground distance. By contrast, the pitching-moment coefficient showed an opposite trend to the variation in Cl and had an almost all-negative value. Meanwhile, two peak values in the drag coefficient over each wavelength were observed. The wavy ground effect-produced gains in the mean Cl and lift-to-drag ratio were at the expense of longitudinal stability. Additional measurements considering different wavelengths and amplitudes are needed to further quantify the impact of wavy ground on wing-in-ground effect (WIG) airfoils and wings.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Steinbach, D. , 1997, “ Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Airfoil With Ground Effects,” J. Aircr., 34(3), pp. 455–456. [CrossRef]
Divitiis, N. D. , 2005, “ Performance and Stability of a Winged Vehicle in Ground Effect,” J. Aircr., 42(1), pp. 148–157. [CrossRef]
Angle, E. M. , Brian, O. M. , Franz, A. P. , and Smith, J. E. , 2009, “ Pitch Stability Analysis of an Airfoil in Ground Effect,” J. Aircr., 46(3), pp. 756–762. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. , Teo, C. J. , Khoo, B. C. , and Goh, C. J. , 2013, “ Computational Aerodynamics and Flight Stability of Wing-in-Ground (WIG) Craft,” Procedia Eng., 67, pp. 15–24. [CrossRef]
Tomaru, H. , and Kohama, Y. , 1990, “ Experiments on Wing in Ground Effect With Fixed Ground Plates,” Second KSME-JSME Fluids Engineering Conference, Seoul, South Korea, Oct. 10–13, pp. 370–373. http://www.dbpia.co.kr/Journal/ArticleDetail/NODE00326836
Hsiun, C. M. , and Chen, C. K. , 1996, “ Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Airfoil With Ground Effect,” J. Aircr., 33(2), pp. 386–392.
Zerihan, J. , and Zhang, X. , 2000, “ Aerodynamics of a Single-Element Wing in Ground Effect,” J. Aircr., 37(6), pp. 1058–1064. [CrossRef]
Moore, N. , Wilson, P. A. , and Peters, A. J. , 2000, “ An Investigation Into Wing in Ground Effect Airfoil Geometry,” RTO SCI Symposium on Challenges in Dynamics, System Identification, Control and Handling Qualities for Land, Air, Sea and Space Vehicles, Berlin, May 13–15, Paper No. RTO-MP-095. https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/51083/1/51083.pdf
Mahon, S. , and Zhang, X. , 2005, “ Computational Analysis of Pressure and Wake Characteristics of an Aerofoil in Ground Effect,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127(2), pp. 290–298. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, M. R. , Takasaki, T. , and Kohama, Y. , 2007, “ Aerodynamics of a NACA 4412 Airfoil in Ground Effect,” AIAA J., 45(1), pp. 37–47. [CrossRef]
Luo, S. C. , and Chen, Y. S. , 2012, “ Ground Effect on Flow Past a Wing With a NACA 0015 Cross-Section,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 40, pp. 18–28. [CrossRef]
Lee, T. , Majeed, A. , Siddiqui, B. , and Tremblay-Dionne, V. , 2017, “ Impact of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Properties of an Unsteady Airfoil,” J Aerosp. Eng., epub.
Rozhdestvensky, K. V. , 2006, “ Wing-in-Ground Effect Vehicles,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., 42(3), pp. 211–283. [CrossRef]
Ando, S. , Sakai, T. , and Nitta, K. , 1992, “ Analysis of Motion of Airfoil Flying Over Wavy-Wall Surface,” Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci. Trans., 35(107), pp. 27–38.
Morishita, E. , and Ashihara, K. , 1995, “ Ground Effect Calculation of a Two-Dimensional Airfoil Over a Wavy Surface,” Jpn. Soc. Aeronaut. Space Sci., 38(119), pp. 77–90.
Im, Y.-H. , and Chang, K.-S. , 2000, “ Unsteady Aerodynamics of a Wing-in-Ground-Effect Airfoil Flying Over a Wavy Wall,” J. Aircr., 37(4), pp. 690–696. [CrossRef]
Rozhdestvensky, K. V. , 2000, Aerodynamics of a Lifting System in Extreme Ground Effect, Springer, Berlin. [CrossRef]
Benedict, K. , Kornev, N. V. , Meyer, M. , and Ebert, J. , 2002, “ Complex Mathematical Model of the WIG Motion Including the Take-Off Mode,” Ocean Eng., 29(3), pp. 315–357. [CrossRef]
Matveev, K. I. , 2012, “ Heave-Pitch Motions of a Platform Flying in Extreme Ground Effect,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 25(2), pp. 238–245. [CrossRef]
Matveev, K. I. , 2015, “ Heave and Pitch Motions of Wing-in-Ground Craft Flying Above Wavy Surface,” Front. Aerosp. Eng., 4(2), pp. 43–47. [CrossRef]
Qu, Q. , Jia, X. , Wang, W. , Liu, P. , and Agarwal, R. K. , 2014, “ Numerical Study of the Aerodynamics of a NACA 4412 Airfoil in Dynamic Ground Effect,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol., 38, pp. 56–63. [CrossRef]
Lee, T. , 2016, “ Impact of Gurney Flaplike Strips on the Aerodynamic and Vortex Flow Characteristics of a Reverse Delta Wing,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 138(6), p. 061104. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematics of airfoil model and ground surface and definition of ground distance h. (a) Wavy ground, ((b) and (c)) measurement position and phase angle along one wavelength, and (d) flat ground. x0′ to x5′ indicates trailing-edge moves toward the wave valley. x5′ to x10′ indicates trailing-edge moves toward the wave peak or away from the wave valley. AC denotes aerodynamic center.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Normalized mean axial flow developed over the wavy ground: (a) iso-u/U contour and (b) u/U velocity profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Cyclic variation in the aerodynamic coefficients of the NACA 0015 airfoil with the measurement position x′/λ over one wavelength at different h/c for α = 12 deg. BA denotes baseline airfoil. Dashed lines denote values over a flat ground.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Impact of wavy ground on Cp distribution as a function of x′/λ over one wavelength h/c = 5% for α = 12 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Iso-u/U contours around the NACA 0015 airfoil over the wavy ground at wave peak (x10′) and wave valley (x5′) at different h/c

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Impact of flat ground effect on iso-u/U contour around the NACA 0015 airfoil as a function of h/c. (a) BA, (b) h/c = 5%, (c) h/c = 10%, (d) h/c = 20%, and (e) h/c = 40%. BA denotes baseline airfoil.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Ground effect on surface pressure coefficient distribution at different h/c and x′/λ at α = 12 deg. Wavy ground: (a) x′/λ = 0, (b) x′/λ = 0.4, and (c) x′/λ = 0.7. (d) Flat ground. BA denotes baseline airfoil.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

u/U velocity profiles for h/c = 10%. (a) BA, (b) flat ground, (c) wavy ground at x′/λ = 1.0, and (d) wavy ground at x′/λ = 0.5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Maximum (denoted by open symbols) and minimum (denoted by solid symbols) aerodynamic coefficients over one wavelength at different h/c. BA denotes baseline airfoil.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Ground effect on the variation of mean aerodynamic coefficients of the NACA 0015 airfoil with h/c. Solid lines denote wavy ground. Dashed lines denote flat ground. BA denotes baseline airfoil.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In