Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

Three-Dimensional Numerical and Experimental Simulation of Wave Run-Up Due to Wave Impact With a Vertical Surface

[+] Author and Article Information
Armin Bodaghkhani

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN),
St. John's, NF A1A-3X5, Canada
e-mail: arminb@mun.ca

Yuri S. Muzychka

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN),
St. John's, NF A1A-3X5, Canada
e-mail: Yurim@mun.ca

Bruce Colbourne

Department of Ocean and Naval
Architectural Engineering,
Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN),
St. John's, NF A1A-3X5, Canada
e-mail: bruce.colbourne@mun.ca

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 21, 2017; final manuscript received February 5, 2018; published online March 29, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Shawn Aram.

J. Fluids Eng 140(8), 081205 (Mar 29, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1678; doi: 10.1115/1.4039369 History: Received October 21, 2017; Revised February 05, 2018

This paper describes a numerical simulation of the interaction of a single nonlinear wave with a solid vertical surface in three dimensions. A coupled volume of fluid (VOF) and level set method (LSM) is used to simulate the wave-body interaction. A Cartesian-grid method is used to model immersed solid boundaries with constant grid spacing for simplicity and lower storage requirements. Mesh refinement is implemented near the wall boundaries due to the complex behavior of the free surface around the body. The behavior of the wave impact, the water sheet, and the high-speed jet arising from the wave impact are all captured with these methods. The numerical scheme is implemented using parallel computing due to the high central processing unit and memory requirements of this simulation. The maximum wave run-up velocity, instant wave run-up velocity in front of the vertical surface, the sheet break-up length, and the maximum impact pressure are computed for several input wave characteristics. Results are compared with a laboratory experiment that was carried out in a tow tank in which several generated waves were impacted with a fixed flat-shaped plate model. The numerical and experimental data on sheet breakup length are further compared with an analytical linear stability model for a viscous liquid sheet, and good agreement is achieved. The comparison between the numerical model and the experimental measurements of pressure, the wave run-up velocity, and the break-up length in front of the plate model shows good agreement.

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Fig. 1

Numerical geometry and structured Cartesian mesh fiction, P–A is a plane section that contains mesh around the model area, P–B is a plane section that includes mesh specifications of both model and free surface area, and P–C is a plane section that shows mesh specification showing mesh about the free surface area

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Fig. 2

Time variation of pressure from pressure sensor B, located on the model, in comparison with numerical results with three grid sizes

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Fig. 3

Experimental free surface elevations in comparison with the numerical results for large and small size grid spacing

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Fig. 4

Dimensions of the wave tank and three wave probes that are located 1m far-field from the model (WP1), at the front of the model (WP2), and 0.6m away and in the same plane as the model (WP3)

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Fig. 5

Experimental schematic and two FOV1 and 2 that are used to capture the sheet and spray separately

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Fig. 6

A numerical wave tank with a lab-scaled flat-shaped model in the middle of the tank

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Fig. 7

Comparison of qualitative perspective views of water splashes; (left, right) the current numerical model (front and rear view); (middle-bottom) the [48] model; and (middle-top) smooth particle hydrodynamic model by LeTouzé et al. [49]

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Fig. 8

Velocity vectors in front of the model at the moment of impact. Water and air are separated by the interface. The top and bottom flow are recognized as air and water, respectively: four-time steps: (a) t=0.08s, (b) t=0.14s, (c) t=0.2s, and (d) t=0.26s.

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Fig. 9

Water and air volume fractions in front of the model at the moment of impact. Water and air are separated by the interface. The top and bottom flow are recognized as air and water, respectively: three-time steps: (a) t=0.08s, (b) t=0.2s, and (c) t=0.32s.

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Fig. 10

Velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude at the moment of water sheer acceleration in front of the model for four different time steps after the moment of impact, each 0.06 s ahead of the other

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Fig. 11

Maximum and minimum velocity magnitude of droplets in front of the flat-plate model along the vertical height of the model: (a) experimental and (b) numerical results. Y represents the location of droplet in front of the model with respect to total vertical height of the model H.

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Fig. 12

A numerical and experimental comparison of velocity magnitudes of droplets in front of the flat plate model along the vertical height of the model

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Fig. 13

Time sequences of experimental results for a common type of impact that consists of both water sheet and spray cloud. (a) t=0.08s, (b) t=0.14s, (c) t=0.2s, and (d) t=0.26s. The bottom edge of the backlight is exactly aligned with the tip of the flat-plate model. Note: t=0 is the moment of wave crest impact with an object.

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Fig. 14

Time sequences of numerical results for a common type of impact that consists of both water sheet and spray cloud. (a) t=0.08s, (b) t=0.14s, and (c) t=0.2s. Air volume fraction is not shown in this figure to indicate the movement of the water interface.

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Fig. 15

Schematic determination of sheet breakup length

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Fig. 16

Comparison between the numerical, analytical predictions, and experimental results of liquid sheet breakup length

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Fig. 17

Maximum, minimum, and average pressure measurements from the experimental modeling of wave impact with a flat plate on pressure sensors B and C

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Fig. 18

A comparison between the average numerical results, Ref. [47] experiment, and Ref. [48] experiment

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Fig. 19

A comparison between the numerical and experimental results of maximum impact pressure on the flat plate



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