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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Velocity and NO-Lifetime Measurements in an Unseeded Hypersonic Air Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Pedro A. de S. Matos

Energy, Propulsion and Combustion Laboratory,
Department of Propulsion,
Aeronautics Institute of Technology,
São José dos Campos 12228-900,
São Paulo, Brazil;
Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics
and Hypersonics,
Institute for Advanced Studies,
São José dos Campos 12228-001,
São Paulo, Brazil
e-mail: pedrosmatos@gmail.com

Luiz G. Barreta

Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics
and Hypersonics,
Institute for Advanced Studies,
São José dos Campos 12228-001,
São Paulo, Brazil;
Energy, Propulsion and Combustion Laboratory,
Department of Propulsion,
Aeronautics Institute of Technology,
São José dos Campos 12228-900,
São Paulo, Brazil
e-mail: barreta2@gmail.com

Cristiane A. Martins

Energy, Propulsion and Combustion Laboratory,
Department of Propulsion,
Aeronautics Institute of Technology,
São José dos Campos 12228-900,
São Paulo, Brazil
e-mail: cmartins@ita.br

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 8, 2017; final manuscript received March 26, 2018; published online June 26, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jun Chen.

J. Fluids Eng 140(12), 121105 (Jun 26, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: FE-17-1485; doi: 10.1115/1.4039863 History: Received August 08, 2017; Revised March 26, 2018

A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)-based nitric-oxide flow-tagging technique was applied to measure both velocity and NO lifetime in a hypersonic shock tunnel from two experimental test runs. The results were supported by an analytical profile proposed in this paper that provides a way to correct velocity measurements under unknown systematic error sources. This procedure provided velocities with discrepancies lower than 3% for a total of five measurements, and lower than 2% when compared with that obtained from a linear fit. Additionally, the comparison between the proposed and experimental profiles allowed us to obtain the fluorescence NO lifetime from only one image.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Simplified experimental arrangement in addition to two simulated images illustrating a reference image and a displaced tagged-flow

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Fig. 2

Experimental schematic for velocity and NO-lifetime measurements by nitric-oxide flow tagging

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Fig. 3

Reference image: normalized 200-image average

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Fig. 4

Delayed image: obtained under delay of t0 = 150 ns and gate time of Δt = 50 ns

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Fig. 5

The top-left and bottom-left images, respectively, show the reference and 150-ns delayed positions calculated row-by-row for the two-dimensional images shown on the right; the reference mean position was adopted as spatial reference for better visualization

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Fig. 6

Reference and respective displaced tagged-flow profile obtained for delays of t0 = 200, 300, 400, and 500 ns; the gate time was fixed at Δt = 50 ns

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Fig. 7

Displacement xM calculated between reference and delayed images for the five obtained pairs of images

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Fig. 8

Simulated profiles for fixed values σ = 170 μm (fwhm = 400 μm), τ = 150 ns and v = 3000 m/s; the profiles differ in delay and gate times as shown in the figure

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Fig. 9

Plots of δC-shifting versus characteristic length vΔt calculated from Eq. (4) for different values of ; the figure also shows the value obtained for the δC = (1/2)vΔt approximation

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Fig. 10

Image obtained under a long exposure time, Δt = 1050 ns, and with no delay time

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Fig. 11

Deviation calculated between reference and long-exposed-non-delayed images; this corresponds to a mean total deviation of δ = 0.125±0.010 mm

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Fig. 12

and σ parameters calculated row-by-row from the best fit between Eq. (4) and the long-exposured image 10

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Fig. 13

Fit between Eq. (4) and an arbitrary row of image 10 to illustrate the agreement between analytical and experimental profiles

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Fig. 14

Plot of measured displacement xM versus effective delay time teff and respective linear regression; the fit provided a velocity of vFIT = 3037±98 m/s and a linear coefficient of δUFIT=−91±35 μm

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