Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

Effect of Metallization on the Electromechanical Properties of Microfluidically Synthesized Hydrogel Beads

[+] Author and Article Information
Kaushik Kudtarkar

Mechanical Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: kak6039@rit.edu

Patricia Iglesias

Mechanical Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: pxieme@rit.edu

Thomas W. Smith

School of Chemistry and Materials Science,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: twssch@rit.edu

Michael J. Schertzer

Mechanical Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: mjseme@rit.edu

1Present address: Mechanical Engineering, Rocheser Institute of Technology, 76 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623-5604.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 11, 2018; final manuscript received September 7, 2018; published online October 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Shizhi Qian.

J. Fluids Eng 141(3), 031303 (Oct 05, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1258; doi: 10.1115/1.4041456 History: Received April 11, 2018; Revised September 07, 2018

This investigation demonstrates that metallization can be used to tailor the electromechanical properties of polymer beads. Rigid ion exchange resin beads and softer microfluidically synthesized polyionic liquid hydrogel beads were metallized using an ion exchange process. Metallization increased bead stiffness and dielectric coefficient while reducing resistivity in all beads examined here. Gold-filled beads were preferable over platinum-filled beads as they generated greater changes in electrical properties with smaller increased stiffness. These properties could be further altered by performing multiple metallization steps, but diminishing returns were observed with each step. Ion exchange resin beads were always stable after multiple metallization steps, but polyionic beads would often rupture when repeatedly compressed. Polyionic beads with higher ionic liquid (IL) content were more fragile, and beads synthesized from monomer solutions containing 1% IL were mechanically robust after three metallization steps. These 1% IL beads delivered similar electrical properties as the IONAC beads that also underwent three metallization steps at a significantly reduced stiffness.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of (a) the facility for microfluidic hydrogel bead synthesis that generates and then photo-polymerizes and (b) monodisperse droplets of monomer fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Process for ion exchange and metallization of IONAC A554 Cl- or poly-IL hydrogel beads,– IL1, IL2, and IL4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Stiffness of initial resin bead (R-0) and resin beads metallized with platinum (R-P1) or gold (R-G1, R-G2, R-G3). Error bars represent three standard deviations from the mean.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Relative permittivity (a) and resistivity (b) of initial R-0 (square), R-P1 (triangle), and R-G1 (circle) beads. Error bars represent three standard deviations from the mean.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Relative permittivity (a) and resistivity (b) of resin beads after multiple metallization steps: R-G1 (dotted square), R-G2 (hashed square), and R-G3 (closed square) beads. Error bars represent three standard deviations from the mean and are often smaller than the data markers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stiffness of microfluidically synthesized polyIL beads before metallization (open), and after one (dotted), two (hashed), and three (closed) gold metallization steps. Sample image of (b) stable and (c) ruptured metallized beads. Error bars represent three standard deviations from the mean.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Electrical properties of microfluidically synthesized polyIL beads before and after metallization: (a) relative permittivity and (b) and resistivity. IL1-G0 (open square), IL1-G1 (dotted square), IL2-G0 (open circle), IL2-G1 (dotted circle), IL4-G0 (open triangle), IL4-G1 (shaded triangle). Error bars represent three standard deviations from the mean and are often smaller than the data markers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Relative permittivity (a) and resistivity (b) of polyIL gel beads with 1% ionic liquid after multiple metallization steps: IL1-G1 (dotted square), IL1-G2 (hashed square), and IL1-G3 (closed square) beads. Error bars represent three standard deviations from the mean and are often smaller than the data markers.



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