Parametric study of the frequency of bubble formation at a single orifice with liquid cross-flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Miguel A. Balzan

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, T6G 1H9, Canada; Physics Department, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand

Franz H. Hernandez Gaitan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697

Carlos F. Lange

10-277 Donadeo Centre for Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, T6G 1H9, Canada

Brian A. Fleck

10-271 Donadeo Centre for Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, T6G 1H9, Canada

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4042755 History: Received July 04, 2018; Revised January 28, 2019


The bubble formation frequency from a single-orifice nozzle subjected to the effects of a cross-flowing liquid was investigated using high-speed shadowgraphy, combined with image analysis and signal processing techniques. The effects of the nozzle dimensions, orientation within the conduit, liquid cross-flow velocity, and gas mass flow rate were evaluated. Water and air were the working fluids. Existing expressions in the literature were compared to the experimental values obtained. The expressions showed modest agreement with the experimental mean average frequency magnitude. It was found that increasing the gas injection diameter could decrease the bubbling frequency approximately 12% until reaching a certain value (0.52 mm). Further increasing the nozzle dimensions increase the frequency by around 20%. Bubbling frequency is more sensitive to the liquid velocity where changes up to 63% occurred when the velocity was raised from 3.1 to 4.3 m/s. Increasing gas mass flow rates decreased the gas jet breakup frequency in all cases. This phenomenon was primarily attributed to changes in the bubbling mode from discrete bubbling to pulsating and jetting modes. The nozzle orientation plays a role in modifying the bubbling frequency, having a higher magnitude when oriented against gravity.

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