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Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

Cavitation in Transient Flows Through a Micro-Nozzle

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Sanmiguel-Rojas

Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales,
Universidad de Málaga,
Campus de Teatinos,
Málaga 29071, Spain
e-mail: enrique.sanmiguel@uma.es

P. Gutierrez-Castillo

Department of Mathematics,
University of California, Davis,
Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: pgutierrez@math.ucdavis.edu

C. del Pino

Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales,
Universidad de Málaga,
Campus de Teatinos,
Málaga 29071, Spain
e-mail: cpino@uma.es

J. A. Auñón-Hidalgo

Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales,
Universidad de Málaga,
Campus de Teatinos,
Málaga 29071, Spain
e-mail: jaaunon@uma.es

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 6, 2018; final manuscript received February 6, 2019; published online April 1, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Daniel Livescu.

J. Fluids Eng 141(9), 091107 (Apr 01, 2019) (6 pages) Paper No: FE-18-1592; doi: 10.1115/1.4042887 History: Received September 06, 2018; Revised February 06, 2019

High cavitating or supercavitating flows in fuel injector systems are crucial since they improve the mixing and the fuel atomization into combustion chambers, decreasing both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, there is a lack of information regarding the required time to obtain high cavitating flows at the nozzle outlet, from the start of the injection pulse. In this work, a new method to quantify the time to get supercavitating flows at the nozzle outlet is developed. In particular, the delay in the inception of a supercavitating flow through a micronozzle is numerically analyzed for different pressure drops in a well-studied benchmark for fuel injectors. The three-dimensional simulations show that a delay higher than 100 μs is necessary for moderate pressure drops. Nevertheless, the delay tends to decay by rising amplitudes of the pressure pulse, reaching a saturation value of around 65 μs.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison between our numerical simulations and the experimental visualizations from Winklhofer et al. [26] (bottom row) for three pressure drops. Contours of constant volume fraction (see legend) at five instants of time corresponding to simulation results. Experimental results are ensemble averaged for 20 images.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison between the measured and simulated mass flow rate (m˙) for different pressure drops. Simulations from Yu et al. [5] (cross) and this work (square).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Detail of the mesh at the longitudinal middle plane close to the rounded corner of radius 20 μm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Computational domain for modeling of the experimental flow by Winklhofer et al. [26]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Temporal evolution of the mass flow rate m˙, measured at the nozzle outlet, for different pressure drops: (a) Δp = 60 bar, (b) Δp = 70 bar, (c) Δp = 80 bar, and (d) Δp = 95 bar. Dashed lines in (c) and (d) are exponential fittings to the m˙ curves after their maximum peaks.

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