Abstract

A novel method for positioning and operating needle-like cryo-surgical probes in 2D convex target areas is presented. The method is based on the recorded dynamic performance of a single probe, termed “unit circle,” (UC) embedded in a semi-infinite, tissue-like medium. Up to 15 cryo-probes, inserted into the same depth, are operated uniformly for 2–5 min. A predetermined number of probes are rearranged inside the target area until a “tight configuration” is obtained. The probes are initially arranged inside the target area such that the “lethal temperature” circles produced by them are tangent to its contour and to both adjacent lethal temperature circles. Subsequently, all probes are repositioned inwardly, each at a specific distance that depends on the local radius of curvature of the target area. Resulting total “defect areas”—internal and external—for a number of demonstrated cases, amounted to between 2.5% and 7.6% of the target area. The lower values of the defect areas were obtained with increasing numbers of inserted probes coupled with shorter operating times. Possible freezing damages to regions beyond the target area were reduced by up to about 30% for these cases. Similar results were obtained for a case of combined convex-concave target area, treated with additional, externally inserted, heating probes.

References

References
1.
Gao
,
L.
,
Yang
,
L.
,
Qian
,
S.
,
Tang
,
Z.
,
Qin
,
F.
,
Wei
,
Q.
,
Han
,
P.
, and
Yuan
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Cryosurgery Would Be an Effective Option for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer, a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
6
, p.
27490
.10.1038/srep27490
2.
American Cancer Society
,
2019
, “Ablation for Liver Cancer,” American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, accessed Sept. 18, 2020, https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/treating/tumor-ablation.html
3.
Cho
,
S.
, and
Kang
,
S. H.
,
2014
, “
Current Status of Cryotherapy for Prostate and Kidney Cancer
,”
Korean J. Urol.
,
55
(
12
), pp.
780
788
.10.4111/kju.2014.55.12.780
4.
Tarkowski
,
R.
, and
Rzaca
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Cryosurgery in the Treatment of Women With Breast Cancer—A Review
,”
Gland Surg.
,
3
(
2
), pp.
88
93
.10.3978/j.issn.2227-684X.2014.03.04
5.
Niu
,
L.
,
Xu
,
K.
, and
Mu
,
F.
,
2012
, “
Cryosurgery for Lung Cancer
,”
J. Thorac. Dis.
,
4
(
4
), pp.
408
419
.10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.07.13
6.
Veth
,
R.
,
Schreuder
,
B.
,
van Beem
,
H.
,
Pruszczynski
,
M.
, and
de Rooy
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Cryosurgery in Aggressive, Benign, and Low-Grade Malignant Bone Tumours
,”
Lancet Oncol.
,
6
(
1
), pp.
25
34
.10.1016/S1470-2045(05)70023-1
7.
He
,
L.
,
Niu
,
L.
,
Korpan
,
N. N.
,
Sumida
,
S.
,
Xiao
,
Y.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Sutedja
,
B.
,
Lu
,
Y.
,
Zuo
,
J.
,
Liu
,
J.
, and
Xu
,
K.
,
2017
, “
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cryosurgery of Pancreatic Cancer, a Consensus Statement From the China Cooperative Group of Cryosurgery on Pancreatic Cancer
,”
Int. Soc. Cryosurg. Asian Soc. Cryosurg. Pancreas
,
46
(
8
), pp.
967
972
.10.1097/MPA.0000000000000878
8.
Gage
,
A. A.
,
Baust
,
J. M.
, and
Baust
,
J. G.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Cryosurgery Investigations In Vivo
,”
Cryobiology
,
59
(
3
), pp.
229
243
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2009.10.001
9.
First
,
K.
,
2015
, “
Clinical Policy Title, Cryosurgery for Tumors, (Most recent review 2018)
,” Keystone First, Philadelphia, PA, accessed Sept. 18, 2020, https://www.keystonefirstpa.com
10.
Littrup
,
P. J.
,
Freeman-Gibb
,
L.
,
Andea
,
A.
,
White
,
M.
,
Amerikia
,
K. C.
,
Bouwman
,
D.
,
Harb
,
T.
, and
Sakr
,
W.
,
2005
, “
Cryotherapy for Breast Fibroadenomas
,”
Radiology
,
234
(
1
), pp.
63
72
.10.1148/radiol.2341030931
11.
Holman
,
S. J.
, and
Rowland
,
S. J.
,
1997
, “
Design and Development of a New Cryosurgical Instrument Utilizing the Peltier Thermoelectric Effect
,”
J. Med. Eng. Technol.
,
21
(
3–4
), pp.
106
10
.10.3109/03091909709031155
12.
Shakurov
,
A. V.
,
Pushkarev
,
A. V.
,
Pushkarev
,
V. A.
, and
Tsiganov
,
D. I.
,
2017
, “
Prerequisites for Developing New Generation Cryosurgical Devices (Review)
,”
CTM, Sovremennye Tehnologii v Med.
,
9
(
2
), pp.
178
187
.10.17691/stm2017.9.2.23
13.
Korpan
,
N. N
., (ed.),
2012
,
Basics of Cryosurgery
,
Springer Verlag
,
New York
.
14.
Keanini
,
R. G.
, and
Rubinsky
,
B.
,
1992
, “
Optimization of Multiprobe Cryosurgery
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
114
(
4
), pp.
796
802
.10.1115/1.2911885
15.
Baissalov
,
R.
,
Sandison
,
G. A.
,
Donnelly
,
B. J.
,
Saliken
,
J. C.
,
McKinnon
,
J. G.
,
Muldrew
,
K.
, and
Rewcastle
,
J. C.
,
2000
, “
A Semi-Empirical Treatment Planning Model for Optimization of Multiprobe Cryosurgery
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
,
45
(
5
), pp.
1085
1098
.10.1088/0031-9155/45/5/301
16.
Baissalov
,
R.
,
Sandison
,
G. A.
,
Reynolds
,
D.
, and
Muldrew
,
K.
,
2001
, “
Simultaneous Optimization of Cryoprobe Placement and Thermal Protocol for Cryosurgery
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
,
46
(
7
), pp.
1799
1814
.10.1088/0031-9155/46/7/305
17.
Lung
,
D. C.
,
Stahovich
,
T. F.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2004
, “
Computerized Planning for Multiprobe Cryosurgery Using Force-Field Analogy
,”
Comput. Meth. Biomech. Biomed. Eng.
,
7
(
2
), pp.
101
110
.10.1080/10255840410001689376
18.
Tanaka
,
D.
,
Shimada
,
K.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2006
, “
Two-Phase Computerized Planning of Cryosurgery Using Bubble-Packing and Force-Field Analogy
,”
ASME J. Biomech. Eng.
,
128
(
1
), pp.
49
58
.10.1115/1.2136166
19.
Keelan
,
R.
,
Yamakawa
,
S.
,
Shimada
,
K.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2013
, “
Computerized Training of Cryosurgery—A System Approach
,”
Cryo Lett.
,
34
(
4
), pp.
324
337
.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4037132/
20.
Keelan
,
R.
,
Zhang
,
H.
,
Shimada
,
K.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
GPU-Based Bioheat Simulation to Facilitate Rapid Decision Making Associated With Cryosurgery Training
,”
Tech. Cancer Res. Treat.
,
15
(
2
), pp.
377
386
.10.1177/1533034615580694
21.
Shimada
,
K.
,
1993
, “
Physically-Based Mesh Generation, Automated Triangulation of Surfaces and Volumes via Bubble-Packing
,”
Ph.D. dissertation
,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
,
Cambridge, MA
.http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/12332
22.
Tanaka
,
D.
,
Shimada
,
K.
,
Rossi
,
M. R.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
Towards Intra-Operative Computerized Planning of Prostate Cryosurgery
,”
Int. J. Med. Rob. Comput. Assis. Surg.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
10
19
.10.1002/rcs.124
23.
Rossi
,
M. R.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2007
, “
Experimental Verification of Numerical Simulation of Cryosurgery With Application to Computerized Planning
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
,
52
(
15
), pp.
4553
4567
.10.1088/0031-9155/52/15/013
24.
Tanaka
,
D.
,
Shimada
,
K.
,
Rossi
,
M. R.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Cryosurgery Planning Using Bubble Packing in 3D
,”
Comput. Meth. Biomech. Biomed. Eng.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
113
121
.10.1080/10255840701336653
25.
Rossi
,
M. R.
,
Tanaka
,
D.
,
Shimada
,
K.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Computerized Planning of Prostate Cryosurgery Using Variable Cryoprobe Insertion Depths
,”
Cryobiology
,
60
(
1
), pp.
71
79
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2008.11.008
26.
Chua
,
K. J.
,
2011
, “
Computer Simulations on Multiprobe Freezing of Irregularly Shaped Tumors
,”
Compu. Biol. Med.
,
41
(
7
), pp.
493
505
.10.1016/j.compbiomed.2011.04.015
27.
Zhao
,
X.
, and
Chua
,
K. J.
,
2014
, “
Studying the Performance of Bifurcate Cryoprobes Based on Shape Factor of Cryoablative Zones
,”
Cryobiology
,
68
(
3
), pp.
309
317
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2014.04.011
28.
Kumar
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Cryosurgery of a Biological Tissue With Multiprobes, Effect of Central Cryoprobe
,”
Heat Mass Transfer
,
50
(
12
), pp.
1751
1764
.10.1007/s00231-014-1382-5
29.
Mirkhalili
,
S. M.
,
Ramazani
,
S. S. A.
, and
Nazemidashtarjandi
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Mathematical Study of Probe Arrangement and Nanoparticle Injection Effects on Heat Transfer During Cryosurgery
,”
Comput. Biol. Med.
,
66
, pp.
113
9
.10.1016/j.compbiomed.2015.09.001
30.
He
,
Z. Z.
, and
Liu
,
J.
,
2015
, “
An Efficient Thermal Evolution Model for Cryoablation With Arbitrary Multi-Cryoprobe Configuration
,”
Cryobiology
,
71
(
2
), pp.
318
328
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.08.006
31.
Thaokar
,
C.
,
Rossi
,
M. R.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
A New Method for Temperature-Field Reconstruction During Ultrasound-Monitored Cryosurgery Using Potential-Field Analogy
,”
Cryobiology
,
72
(
1
), pp.
69
77
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.10.153
32.
Magalov
,
Z.
,
Shitzer
,
A.
, and
Degani
,
D.
,
2016
, “
An Efficient Technique for Estimating the Two-Dimensional Temperature Distributions Around Multiple Cryo-Surgical Probes Based on Combining Contributions of Unit Circles
,”
Comput. Meth. Biomech. Biomed. Eng.
,
19
(
13
), pp.
1462
1474
.10.1080/10255842.2016.1154546
33.
Magalov
,
Z.
,
Shitzer
,
A.
, and
Degani
,
D.
,
2008
, “
Experimental and Numerical Study of 1, 2 and 3 Embedded Needle Cryo-Probes Simultaneously Operated by High Pressure Argon Gas
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
130
(
3
), p.
032301
.10.1115/1.2804943
34.
Galil Medical
,
2012
, “
Personal Communication
,” Galil Medical, Yokneam, Israel, accessed Sept. 21, 2020, https://madein-israel.com/selectedCompany.aspx?CompanyId=80&CompanyName=Galil-Medical
35.
Gage
,
A. A.
,
1979
, “
What Temperature is Lethal for Cells?
,”
J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol.
,
5
(
6
), pp.
459
460
.10.1111/j.1524-4725.1979.tb00695.x
36.
Lee
,
F. T.
,
Mahvi
,
D. M.
,
Chosy
,
G.
,
Onik
,
G. M.
,
Wong
,
W. S.
,
Littrup
,
P. J.
, and
Scanlan
,
K. A.
,
1997
, “
Hepatic Cryosurgery With Intraoperative U.S. Guidance
,”
Radiology
,
202
(
3
), pp.
624
632
.10.1148/radiology.202.3.9051005
37.
Wong
,
W. S.
,
Chinn
,
D. O.
,
Chinn
,
M.
,
Chinn
,
J.
,
Tom
,
W. L.
, and
Tom
,
W. L.
,
1997
, “
Cryosurgery as a Treatment for Prostate Carcinoma
,”
Cancer
,
79
(
5
), pp.
963
974
.10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19970301)79:5<963::AID-CNCR13>3.0.CO;2-0
38.
Saliken
,
J. C.
,
Donnelly
,
B. J.
, and
Rewcastle
,
J. C.
,
2002
, “
The Evolution and State of Modern Technology for Prostate Cryosurgery
,”
Urology
,
60
(
2
), pp.
26
33
.10.1016/S0090-4295(02)01681-3
39.
Zisman
,
A.
,
Pantuck
,
A. J.
,
Cohen
,
J. K.
, and
Belldegrun
,
A.
,
2001
, “
Prostate Cryoablation Using Direct Transperineal Placement of Ultrathin Probes Through a 17-Gauge Brachytherapy Template—Technique and Preliminary Results
,”
Urology
,
58
(
6
), pp.
988
993
.10.1016/S0090-4295(01)01422-4
40.
Pantuck
,
A. J.
,
Zisman
,
A.
,
Cohen
,
J.
, and
Belldegrun
,
A.
,
2002
, “
Cryosurgical Ablation of Renal Tumors Using 1.5-Millimeter, Ultrathin Cryoprobes
,”
Urology
,
59
(
1
), pp.
130
133
.10.1016/S0090-4295(01)01502-3
41.
Magalov
,
Z.
,
Shitzer
,
A.
, and
Degani
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Isothermal Volume Contours Generated in a Freezing Gel by Embedded Cryo-Needles With Application to Cryo-Surgery
,”
Cryobiology
,
55
(
2
), pp.
127
137
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2007.06.009
42.
Staren
,
E. D.
,
Sabel
,
M. S.
,
Gianakakis
,
L. M.
,
Wiener
,
G. A.
,
Hart
,
V. M.
,
Gorski
,
M.
,
Dowlatshahi
,
K.
,
Corning
,
B. F.
,
Michael
,
F.
,
Haklin
,
M. F.
, and
Koukoulis
,
G.
,
1997
, “
Cryosurgery of Breast Cancer
,”
Arch. Surg.
,
132
(
1
), pp.
28
33
.10.1001/archsurg.1997.01430250030005
43.
Tanaka
,
D.
,
Shimada
,
K.
,
Rossi
,
M. R.
, and
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Computerized Planning of Prostate Cryosurgery With Pullback Operation
,”
Comput. Aided Surg.
,
13
(
1
), pp.
1
13
.10.3109/10929080701882556
44.
Jain
,
S.
,
Bhojwani
,
A. G.
, and
Mellon
,
J. K.
,
2002
, “
Improving the Utility of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer, the Use of PSA Derivatives and Novel Markers
,”
Postgrad. Med. J.
,
78
(
925
), pp.
646
650
.10.1136/pmj.78.925.646
45.
Shurrab
,
M.
,
Wang
,
H.
,
Kubo
,
N.
,
Fukunaga
,
T.
,
Kurata
,
K.
, and
Takamatsu
,
H.
,
2016
, “
The Cooling Performance of a Cryoprobe, Establishing Guidelines for the Safety Margins in Cryosurgery
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
67
, pp.
308
318
.10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2016.03.007
46.
Taubin
,
G.
,
1991
, “
Estimation of Planar Curves, Surfaces, and Nonplanar Space Curves Defined by Implicit Equations With Applications to Edge and Range Image Segmentation
,”
IEEE Trans. Pattern Analys. Mach. Intell.
,
13
(
11
), pp.
1115
1138
.10.1109/34.103273
47.
Rabin
,
Y.
, and
Stahovich
,
T. F.
,
2003
, “
Cryoheater as a Means of Cryosurgery Control
,”
Phys. Med. Biol.
,
48
(
5
), pp.
619
632
.10.1088/0031-9155/48/5/305
48.
Rabin
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
Computerized Planning of Cryosurgery, From Model Reconstruction to Cryoprobe Placement Strategies
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
7181
(
1
), p.
71810D
.10.1117/12.810537
You do not currently have access to this content.