Bicomponent transition metal oxide (TMO) anodes have attracted increased attention for the application in high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, MoO3-NiO/graphene (MNG) composite was fabricated by one-pot method. Results showed that ultrafine MoO3 nanosheets and NiO nanoparticles were homogeneously anchored on the graphene layers, which is benefit for short Li+ diffusion distance, fast reaction kinetics, and low volume expansion. The as-prepared MNG composite exhibited remarkable electrochemical properties as lithium-ion battery anodes with high specific capacities of 1164 mAh/g at 100 mA/g after 50 cycles and 946.9 mAh/g at 1000 mA/g after 180 cycles. This work indicates that the MNG composite would be a promising anode material for high-performance LIBs.