This paper presents comparisons between two-dimensional (2D) CFD simulations and experimental investigations of the cavitating flow around a symmetrical 2D hydrofoil. This configuration was proposed as a test case in the “Workshop on physical models and CFD tools for computation of cavitating flows” at the 5th International Symposium on cavitation, which was held in Osaka in November 2003. The calculations were carried out in the ENSTA laboratory (Palaiseau, France), and the experimental visualizations and measurements were performed in the IRENav cavitation tunnel (Brest, France). The calculations are based on a single-fluid approach of the cavitating flow: the liquid/vapor mixture is treated as a homogeneous fluid whose density is controlled by a barotropic state law. Results presented in the paper focus on cavitation inception, the shape and the general behavior of the sheet cavity, lift and drag forces without and with cavitation, wall pressure signals around the foil, and the frequency of the oscillations in the case of unsteady sheet cavitation. The ability of the numerical model to predict successively the noncavitating flow field, nearly steady sheet cavitation, unsteady cloud cavitation, and finally nearly supercavitating flow is discussed. It is shown that the unsteady features of the flow are correctly predicted by the model, while some subtle arrangements of the two-phase flow during the condensation process are not reproduced. A comparison between the peer numerical results obtained by several authors in the same flow configuration is also performed. Not only the cavitation model and the turbulence model, but also the numerical treatment of the equations, are found to have a strong influence on the results.