Research Papers: Flows in Complex Systems

J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081101-081101-9. doi:10.1115/1.4030165.

Actuator-disk models (ADMs) use blade element theory to numerically simulate the flow field induced by axial fans. These models give a fair approximation at near design flow rates, but are of poor accuracy at low flow rates. Therefore, the lift/drag (LD) characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) sections along the span of an air-cooled heat exchanger (ACHE) axial fan are numerically investigated, with the future prospect of improving ADMs at these flow conditions. It is found that the blade sectional LD characteristics are similar in shape, but offset from the 2D LD characteristics of the reference airfoil (NASA LS 413 profile) at small angles of attack (αatt<5deg). A deviation between these characteristics is observed at higher angles of attack. The blade sectional lift coefficients for αatt>5deg always remain lower compared to the maximum lift coefficient of the reference airfoil. Conversely, the blade sectional drag coefficients are always higher compared to that of the reference airfoil for αatt>5deg.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081102-081102-16. doi:10.1115/1.4030017.

It is known that a kind of stall precursor-suppressed (SPS) casing treatment can be used to enhance compressor stall margin (SM) without recognizable efficiency loss. The further requirement in this regard is to develop an effective way to determine the variation range of the SM improvement during the design of such SPS casing treatment. In this investigation, based on the extrapolation hypothesis and the existing work, an extended stall inception model for quantitative evaluation of the SM enhancement is presented for both subsonic and transonic compressors with the SPS casing treatment. The capability of the extended model to quantitatively evaluate the SM enhancement with the SPS casing treatment is validated against the experimental data. The quantitative evaluation results show that the SPS casing treatments with different geometric parameters can improve the SM by a diverse percentage. In particular, for the facilities used in the present investigation, the experiments show that the SPS casing treatments can cause relevant increases of the SM. The change trend of the SM enhancement with various design parameters of the SPS casing treatment is in line with the corresponding theoretical results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081103-081103-16. doi:10.1115/1.4030287.

Fully developed turbulent flow of drag reducing fluids through a horizontal flow loop with concentric annular geometry was investigated using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Experiments were conducted at solvent Reynolds numbers ranged from 38,700 to 56,400. Axial mean velocity profile was found to be following the universal wall law close to the wall (i.e., y+ < 10), but it deviated from log law results with an increased slope in the logarithmic zone (i.e., y+ > 30). The study was also focused on turbulence statistics such as near wall Reynolds stress distribution, axial and radial velocity fluctuations, vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy budget.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081104-081104-14. doi:10.1115/1.4030183.

Experimental and numerical investigations were performed to determine the pressure distributions and the drag forces on a passenger car model. Experiments were carried out with 1/5th scale model FIAT Linea for 20% and ~ 1% blockage ratios in the Uludag University Wind Tunnel (UURT) and in the Ankara Wind Tunnel (ART), respectively. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for 1/5th scale model with 0%, 5%, and 20% blockage ratios was performed to validate various blockage correction methods supplementary to the experimental results. Three-dimensional, incompressible, and steady governing equations were solved by STAR-CCM+ code with realizable k–ε two-layer turbulence model. The calculated drag coefficients were in good agreement with the experimental results within 6%. Pressure coefficients on the model surfaces have shown similar trends in the experimental and numerical studies. Some of the existing blockage correction methods were successfully compared in this study and predicted drag coefficients were within ± 5%. The authors propose the continuity and the Sykes blockage correction methods for passenger car models because they are very simple and practical and they can be used economically for engineering applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Fundamental Issues and Canonical Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081201-081201-15. doi:10.1115/1.4029928.

Measurements have been carried out for determining the viscosity of several nanofluids, in which different nanoparticles were dispersed in a base fluid of 60% propylene glycol (PG) and 40% water by mass. The nanoparticles were aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO), silicon dioxide (SiO2), titanium oxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) with different average particle diameters. Measurements were conducted for particle volume concentrations of up to 6% and over a temperature range of 243 K–363 K. All the nanofluids exhibited a Bingham plastic behavior at lower temperatures of 243 K–273 K and a Newtonian behavior in the temperature range of 273 K–363 K. Comparisons of the experimental data with several existing models show that they do not exhibit good agreement. Therefore, a new model has been developed for the viscosity of nanofluids as a function of temperature, particle volume concentration, particle diameter, the properties of nanoparticles, and those of the base fluid. Measurements were also conducted for single walled, bamboolike structured, and hollow structured multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) dispersed in a base fluid of 20% PG and 80% water by mass. Measurements of these carbon nanotubes (CNT) nanofluids were conducted for a particle volume concentration of 0.229% and over a temperature range of 273 K–363 K, which exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior. The effect of ultrasonication time on the viscosity of CNT nanofluids was investigated. From the experimental data of CNT nanofluids, a new correlation was developed which relates the viscosity to temperature and the Péclet number.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081202-081202-12. doi:10.1115/1.4029888.

In this study, the form of the analytes distribution in isotachophoresis (ITP) in the presence of a convective flow is analyzed in a wide rectangular microchannel. The imposed convection is considered due to a mismatch of electroosmotic (EO) slip velocity of electrolytes of different electrophoretic mobilities. We compute the two-dimensional (2D) Nernst–Planck equations coupled with the Navier–Stokes equations for fluid flow and an equation for electric field. We use a control volume method along with a higher-order upwind scheme to capture the sharp variation of variables in the transition zones. The convection of electrolytes produces a smearing effect on the steepness of the electric field and ion distribution in the interface between two adjacent electrolytes in the ITP process. The dispersion of the interface in plateau-mode and the sample in peak-mode is analyzed through the second- and third-order moments. The dispersion due to nonuniform EO flow (EOF) of electrolytes is found to be different from the case when the dispersion is considered only due to an external pressure driven Poiseuille flow. The nonuniform EOF of electrolytes produces less dispersion and skewness in the sample distribution when the molecular diffusivity of the sample ionic species is close to the harmonic mean of the diffusivity of adjacent electrolytes. We find that the EOF may become advantageous in separating two analytes of close diffusivity. Our results show that the one-dimensional (1D) Taylor–Aris model is suitable to predict the dispersed ITP when the average convection speed of electrolytes is in the order of the ITP speed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081203-081203-10. doi:10.1115/1.4030002.

Large eddy simulation (LES) approach was used to investigate jumps of primary frequency of shear layer flow over a cavity. Comparisons between computational results and experimental data show that LES is an appropriate approach to accurately capturing the critical values of velocity and cavity length of a frequency jump, as well as characteristics of the separated shear layer. The drive force of the self-sustained oscillation of impinging shear layer is fluid injection and reinjection. Flow patterns in the shear layer and cavity before and after the frequency jump demonstrate that the frequency jump is associated with vortex–corner interaction. Before frequency jump, a mature vortex structure is observed in shear layer. The vortex is clipped by impinging corner at approximately half of its size, which induces strong vortex–corner interaction. After frequency jump, successive vortices almost escape from impinging corner without the generation of a mature vortex, thereby indicating weaker vortex–corner interaction. Two wave peaks are observed in the shear layer after the frequency jump because of: (1) vortex–corner interaction and (2) centrifugal instability in cavity. Pressure fluctuations inside the cavity are well regulated with respect to time. Peak values of correlation coefficients close to zero time lags indicate the existence of standing waves inside the cavity. Transitions from a linear to a nonlinear process occurs at the same position (i.e., x/H = 0.7) for both velocity and cavity length variations. Slopes of linear region are solely the function of cavity length, thereby showing increased steepness with increased cavity length.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Multiphase Flows

J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081301-081301-15. doi:10.1115/1.4029890.

Multiphase pumps for offshore plants must perform at high pressure because they are installed on deep-sea floors to pressurize and transfer crude oil in oil wells. As the power for operating pumps should be supplied to deep sea floors using umbilicals, risers, and flow lines (URF), which involve a higher cost to operate pumps, the improvement of pump efficiency is strongly emphasized. In this study, a design optimization to improve the hydrodynamic performance of multiphase pumps for offshore plants was implemented. The design of experiment (DOE) techniques was used for organized design optimization. When DOE was performed, the performance of each test set was evaluated using the verified numerical analysis. In this way, the efficiency of the optimization was improved to save time and cost. The degree to which each design variable affects pump performance was evaluated using fractional factorial design, so that the design variables having a strong effect were selected based on the result. Finally, the optimized model indicating a higher performance level than the base model was generated by design optimization using the response surface method (RSM). How the performance was improved was also analyzed by comparing the internal flow fields of the base model with the optimized model. It was found that the nonuniform flow components observed on the base model were sharply suppressed in the optimized model. In addition, due to the increase of the pressure performance of the optimized model, the volume of air was reduced; therefore, the optimized model showed less energy loss than the base model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):081302-081302-11. doi:10.1115/1.4030067.

In this work, the gas-kinetic method (GKM) is enhanced with resistive and Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects. Known as MGKM (for MHD–GKM), this approach incorporates additional source terms to the momentum and energy conservation equations and solves the magnetic field induction equation. We establish a verification protocol involving numerical solutions to the one-dimensional (1D) shock tube problem and two-dimensional (2D) channel flows. The contributions of ideal, resistive, and Hall effects are examined in isolation and in combination against available analytical and computational results. We also simulate the evolution of a laminar MHD jet subject to an externally applied magnetic field. This configuration is of much importance in the field of plasma propulsion. Results support previous theoretical predictions of jet stretching due to magnetic field influence and azimuthal rotation due to the Hall effect. In summary, MGKM is established as a promising tool for investigating complex plasma flow phenomena.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):084501-084501-3. doi:10.1115/1.4029840.

A self-locomotive microrobot can be a key technology for medical applications, manufacturing, or micro total analysis systems (μTAS). Although previous studies have mostly used magnetic, electric, chemical, or optical forces to control microrobots, we utilized flow oscillations. The results showed that the locomotion of the microrobot was stepwise near a wall when the oscillations were applied both horizontally and vertically. The most efficient microrobot was capable of propelling itself about 2×10-3 times its radius during one oscillation period. These results illustrate that the proposed stepping microrobot has great potential for future applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):084502-084502-3. doi:10.1115/1.4029447.

The uniform flow over a bi-axial stretching surface is studied by similarity transform of the Navier–Stokes equations and an efficient numerical integration of the resulting ordinary differential equations. The uniform flow induces a net shear stress (and drag), which is increased by lateral stretching. Heat transfer from the surface is also determined.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Fluids Eng. 2015;137(8):084503-084503-3. doi:10.1115/1.4030003.

Revisiting the fluctuating vorticity field in the centerplane of a turbulent channel flow, we show that the vorticity is distinctly anisotropic at low Reynolds numbers (Re). This result is in contrast with some earlier conclusions. The anisotropy is a function of Re, and we have compiled data to show that the anisotropy gradually vanishes with increasing Re. Acknowledging the anisotropy is important for current efforts on simulating turbulent particle suspensions.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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