Aerosol jet printing (AJP) is a complex process for additive electronics that is often unstable. To overcome this instability, observation while printing and control of the printing process using image-based monitoring is demonstrated. This monitoring is validated against images taken after the print and shown highly correlated and useful for the determination of printed linewidth. These images and the observed linewidth are used as input for closed-loop control of the printing process, with print speed changed in response to changes in the observed linewidth. Regression is used to relate these quantities and forms the basis of proportional and proportional integral control. Electrical test structures were printed with controlled and uncontrolled printing, and it was found that the control influenced their linewidth and electrical properties, giving improved uniformity in both size and electrical performance.

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