Abstract

Ultrasonic vibration-assisted (UV-A) directed energy deposition (DED) has become a promising technology to improve the as-built quality and mechanical performance of metal parts. Ultrasonic frequency, a critical parameter of the ultrasonic vibration, can remarkably affect the ultrasonic vibration behaviors in assisting DED processes. However, leveraging varied ultrasonic frequencies in UV-A DED attracts little attention, and the effects of ultrasonic frequency have been thus overlooked. Linking ultrasonic frequency and part performance emphasizes the need for an understanding of the underlying thermodynamics in the melt pool due to the key role of thermal history in the DED process. In this work, we fabricated Inconel 718 (IN718) parts using the UV-A DED process under different levels of ultrasonic vibration frequency (including 0, 25 kHz, 33 kHz, and 41 kHz). For the first time, melt pool size, temperature distribution, and peak temperature within the melt pool, as well as the peak temperature fluctuation within a layer deposition, were studied. Porosity and thermal-dependent properties including grain size and microhardness were also investigated. The results indicated that the increase in ultrasonic frequency led to an increase in both melt pool size and peak temperature. Moreover, the lowest porosity was obtained at an ultrasonic frequency of 25 kHz, while grain refinement and microhardness enhancement were achieved at the highest frequency of 41 kHz. This investigation provides great insights into the link among ultrasonic frequency, melt pool formation, temperature field, porosity, and thermal-dependent properties in the UV-A DED-built IN718 parts.

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