Abstract

A strategy for precise solar tracking has been developed using feedback signals from seven photosensors in conjunction with the operation of an active daylighting system. The tracking system was composed of a microcontroller, two stepper motors, photosensors, a grooves-in Fresnel lens concentrator, and a glass optical fiber cable. A robust control was implemented using cadmium sulfide (CdS) sensors to track the sun’s path precisely from sunrise to sunset. To avoid the cloud effect, two separate sensors were installed apart from the main tracking sensors. The control system was allowed to track the sun’s position if clouds covered the sky continuously for less than approximately 70 min. To analyze the performance of the solar tracker for daylighting applications, a series of experiments were performed in different weather conditions where the accuracy and effectiveness of the present solar tracking control were confirmed.

References

References
1.
Dreyfus
,
G.
, and
Gallinat
,
C.
,
2015
,
Rise and Shine: Lighting the World With 10. Billion LED Bulbs
,
U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC
.
2.
Bethesda
,
M.
,
1995
,
Green Building Rating System-Draft Recommendations for a U.S. Rating System
,
U.S. Green Building Council, Washington, DC
.
3.
Zhu
,
J.
, and
Huang
,
H.
,
2014
, “
Design and Thermal Performances of Semi-Parabolic Linear Fresnel Reflector Solar Concentration Collector
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
77
, pp.
733
737
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.10.015
4.
Huang
,
F.
,
Li
,
L.
, and
Huang
,
W.
,
2014
, “
Optical Performance of an Azimuth Tracking Linear Fresnel Solar Concentrator
,”
Sol. Energy
,
108
, pp.
1
12
. 10.1016/j.solener.2014.06.028
5.
Rungasamy
,
A. E.
,
Craig
,
K. J.
, and
Meyer
,
J. P.
,
2015
, “
3-D CFD Modeling of a Slanted Receiver in a Compact Linear Fresnel Plant With Etendue-Matched Mirror Field
,”
Energy Procedia
,
69
, pp.
188
197
. 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.03.022
6.
Boito
,
P.
, and
Grena
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Optimization of the Geometry of Fresnel Linear Collectors
,”
Sol. Energy
,
135
, pp.
479
486
. 10.1016/j.solener.2016.05.060
7.
Valmiki
,
M. M.
,
Li
,
P.
,
Heyer
,
J.
,
Morgan
,
M.
,
Albinali
,
A.
,
Alhamidi
,
K.
, and
Wagoner
,
J.
,
2011
, “
A Novel Application of a Fresnel Lens for a Solar Stove and Solar Heating
,”
Renewable Energy
,
36
(
5
), pp.
1614
1620
. 10.1016/j.renene.2010.10.017
8.
Zheng
,
H.
,
Wu
,
G.
,
Tao
,
T.
,
Su
,
Y.
, and
Dai
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Combination of a Light Funnel Concentrator With a Deflector for Orientated Sunlight Transmission
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
88
, pp.
785
793
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.09.004
9.
Song
,
J.
,
Zhu
,
Y.
,
Jin
,
Z.
, and
Yang
,
Y.
,
2014
, “
Daylighting System via Fibers Based on Two-Stage Sun-Tracking Model
,”
Sol. Energy
,
108
, pp.
331
339
. 10.1016/j.solener.2014.07.021
10.
Shen
,
X.
,
Sun
,
Y.
,
Wei
,
Y.
,
Zhong
,
S.
,
Li
,
F.
,
Lin
,
S.
,
Li
,
J.
,
Meng
,
X.
, and
Wang
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
Analysis of a Hybrid Cost-Effective Solar Lighting System
,”
SPIE
,
7423
, pp.
74230U
1
.
11.
Vu
,
N. H.
,
Pham
,
T. T.
, and
Shin
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Modified Optical Fiber Daylighting System With Sunlight Transportation in Free Space
,”
Opt. Express
,
24
(
26
), pp.
A1528
A1545
. 10.1364/OE.24.0A1528
12.
Gorthala
,
R.
,
Tidd
,
M.
, and
Lawless
,
S.
,
2017
, “
Design and Development of a Faceted Secondary Concentrator for a Fiber-Optic Hybrid Solar Lighting System
,”
Sol. Energy
,
157
, pp.
629
640
. 10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.070
13.
Kumar
,
V.
,
Shrivastava
,
R. L.
, and
Untawale
,
S. P.
,
2015
, “
Fresnel Lens: A Promising Alternative of Reflectors in Concentrated Solar Power
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
44
, pp.
376
390
. 10.1016/j.rser.2014.12.006
14.
Sapia
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Daylighting in Buildings: Developments of Sunlight Addressing by Optical Fiber
,”
Sol. Energy
,
89
, pp.
113
121
. 10.1016/j.solener.2012.12.003
15.
Hraska
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Chronobiological Aspects of Green Buildings Daylighting
,”
Renewable Energy
,
73
, pp.
109
114
. 10.1016/j.renene.2014.06.008
16.
Perez-Enciso
,
R.
,
Gallo
,
A.
,
Riveros-Rosas
,
D.
,
Fuentealba-Vidal
,
E.
, and
Perez-Rábago
,
C.
,
2016
, “
A Simple Method to Achieve a Uniform Flux Distribution in a Multi-Faceted Point Focus Concentrator
,”
Renewable Energy
,
93
, pp.
115
124
. 10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.069
17.
Wang
,
W.
,
Aichmayer
,
L.
,
Garrido
,
J.
, and
Laumert
,
B.
,
2017
, “
Development of a Fresnel Lens Based High-Flux Solar Simulator
,”
Sol. Energy
,
144
, pp.
436
444
. 10.1016/j.solener.2017.01.050
18.
Song
,
J.
,
Luo
,
G.
,
Tong
,
K.
,
Li
,
L.
, and
Yang
,
Y.
,
2018
, “
A Note on Dispersion Phenomenon in the Fiber Daylighting System With the Fresnel Lens
,”
Sol. Energy
,
161
, pp.
6
8
. 10.1016/j.solener.2017.11.069
19.
Lv
,
Y.
,
Xia
,
L.
,
Yan
,
J.
, and
Bi
,
J.
,
2018
, “
Design of a Hybrid Fiber Optic Daylighting and PV Solar Lighting System
,”
Energy Procedia
,
145
, pp.
586
591
. 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.04.087
20.
Sansoni
,
P.
,
Francini
,
F.
,
Fontani
,
D.
,
Mercatelli
,
L.
, and
Jafrancesco
,
D.
,
2008
, “
Indoor Illumination by Solar Light Collectors
,”
Light. Res. Technol.
,
40
(
4
), pp.
323
332
. 10.1177/1477153508095128
21.
Lingfors
,
D.
, and
Volotinen
,
T.
,
2013
, “
Illumination Performance and Energy Saving of a Solar Fiber Optic Lighting System
,”
Optics Express
,
21
(
S4
), pp.
A642
A655
. 10.1364/OE.21.00A642
22.
Chen
,
C. F.
,
Lin
,
C. H.
, and
Jan
,
H. T.
,
2010
, “
A Solar Concentrator With Two Reflection Mirrors Designed by Using a Ray Tracking Method
,”
Optik
,
121
, pp.
1402
1051
. 10.1016/j.ijleo.2008.12.010
23.
Whang
,
A. J.
,
Chen
,
Y. Y.
, and
Wu
,
B. Y.
,
2009
, “
Innovative Design of Cassegrain Solar Concentrator System for Indoor Illumination Utilizing Chromatic Aberration to Filter Out Ultraviolet and Infrared in Sunlight
,”
Sol. Energy
,
83
(
8
), pp.
1115
1122
. 10.1016/j.solener.2008.12.013
24.
Alami
,
A. H.
,
2014
, “
Experimental Investigation on Paraboloid Solar Concentrator With a Conical Secondary Concentrator
,”
Int. J. Energy Res.
,
38
(
14
), pp.
1896
1902
. 10.1002/er.3196
25.
Wang
,
C.
,
Abdul-Rahman
,
H.
, and
Rao
,
S. P.
,
2010
, “
Daylighting Can be Fluorescent: Development of a Fiber Solar Concentrator and Test for Its Indoor Illumination
,”
Energy Build.
,
42
(
5
), pp.
717
727
. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.11.011
26.
Chow
,
S. K. H.
,
Li
,
D. H. W.
,
Lee
,
E. W. M.
, and
Lam
,
J. C.
,
2013
, “
Analysis and Prediction of Daylighting and Energy Performance in Atrium Spaces Using Daylight-Linked Lighting Controls
,”
Appl. Energy
,
112
, pp.
1016
1024
. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.12.033
27.
Wang
,
G.
,
Wang
,
L.
,
Li
,
F.
, and
Kong
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Design of Optical Element Combining Fresnel Lens With Microlens Array for Uniform Light-Emitting Diode Lighting
,”
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A
,
29
(
9
), pp.
1877
1884
. 10.1364/JOSAA.29.001877
28.
Ullah
,
I.
,
2014
, “
Development of Fresnel-Based Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) System With Uniform Irradiance
,”
J. Daylighting
,
1
(
1
), pp.
2
7
. 10.15627/jd.2014.1
29.
Han
,
H. J.
,
Riffat
,
S. B.
,
Lim
,
S. H.
, and
Oh
,
S. J.
,
2013
, “
Fiber Optic Solar Lighting: Functional Competitiveness and Potential
,”
Sol. Energy
,
94
, pp.
86
101
. 10.1016/j.solener.2013.04.010
30.
Kim
,
Y.
,
Jeong
,
H. J.
,
Kim
,
W.
,
Chun
,
W.
,
Han
,
H. J.
, and
Lim
,
S. H.
,
2017
, “
A Comparative Performance Analysis on Daylighting for Two Different Types of Solar Concentrators: Dish vs. Fresnel Lens
,”
Energy
,
137
, pp.
449
456
. 10.1016/j.energy.2017.02.168
31.
Han
,
H. J.
,
Mehmood
,
M. U.
,
Ahmed
,
R.
,
Kim
,
Y.
,
Dutton
,
S.
,
Lim
,
S. H.
, and
Chun
,
W.
,
2019
, “
An Advanced Daylighting System Combining Solar and an Artificial Light Source for Constant Illumination and Energy Saving in Buildings
,”
Energy Build.
,
203
, p.
109404
. 10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109404
32.
Oh
,
S. J.
,
Lee
,
Y. J.
,
Chen
,
K.
,
Kim
,
Y. K.
,
Lim
,
S. H.
, and
Chun
,
W.
,
2011
, “
Development of an Embedded Solar Tracker for the Enhancement of Solar Energy Utilization
,”
Int. J. Energy Res.
,
36
(
2
), pp.
249
258
. 10.1002/er.1813
33.
Oh
,
S. J.
,
Burhan
,
M.
,
Ng
,
K. C.
,
Kim
,
Y.
, and
Chun
,
W.
,
2015
, “
Development and Performance Analysis of a Two-Axis Solar Tracker for Concentrated Photovoltaics
,”
Int. J. Energy Res.
,
39
(
7
), pp.
965
976
. 10.1002/er.3306
34.
Yao
,
Y.
,
Hu
,
Y.
,
Gao
,
S.
,
Yang
,
G.
, and
Du
,
J.
,
2014
, “
A Multipurpose Dual-Axis Solar Tracker With Two Tracking Strategies
,”
Renewable Energy
,
72
, pp.
88
98
. 10.1016/j.renene.2014.07.002
35.
Burhan
,
M.
,
Oh
,
S. J.
,
Chua
,
K. J. E.
, and
Ng
,
K. C.
,
2016
, “
Double Lens Collimator Solar Feedback Sensor and Master-Slave Configuration: Development of Compact and Low Cost Two Axis Solar Tracking System for CPV Applications
,”
Sol. Energy
,
137
, pp.
352
363
. 10.1016/j.solener.2016.08.035
36.
Allil
,
R. C.
,
Manchego
,
A.
,
Allil
,
A.
,
Rofrigues
,
I.
,
Werneck
,
A.
,
Diaz
,
G. C.
,
Dino
,
T. F.
,
Reyes
,
Y.
, and
Werneck
,
M.
,
2018
, “
Solar Tracker Development Based on a POF Bundle and Fresnel Lens Applied to Environment Illumination and Microalgae Cultivation
,”
Sol. Energy
,
174
, pp.
648
659
. 10.1016/j.solener.2018.09.061
You do not currently have access to this content.