Abstract

In the present work, a numerical model is developed to analyze the riser-downcomer system of a natural circulation steam generator. The design and operation of the riser-downcomer system involve many complex issues such as multiphase flow inside the riser tubes, numerous possibilities of different flow regimes, and undesirable tube overheating due to the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF). A separated flow model is developed to analyze steam-water two-phase flow inside the heated riser tubes. Further, the model is coupled with the implementation of the complex flow regime map and evaluation of wall temperature rise of the riser tubes. The present model is adequately validated with the existing experimental and numerical data as a direct problem. The model accuracy in predicting the tube dry-out and practical design is tested with the experimental data and real plant data, respectively. A typical 600 MW thermal power plant boiler is then investigated along with techno-economic efforts to find the possible design solutions of the boiler riser-downcomer circuit. The safe and unsafe zones of operations have been identified in the present study and, consequently, a range of feasible design solutions is provided in great detail. The diameters and thicknesses of the tubes used in the present analysis are in compliance with the ASME boiler code.

References

References
1.
Ali
,
H.
, and
Alam
,
S. S.
,
1992
, “
Circulation Rates in Thermosyphon Reboiler
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
13
(
1
), pp.
86
92
. 10.1016/0142-727X(92)90063-F
2.
Aung
,
N. Z.
, and
Li
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Numerical Investigation on Effect of Riser Diameter and Inclination on System Parameters in a Two-Phase Closed Loop Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
75
, pp.
25
35
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.06.001
3.
Collier
,
J. G.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
,
1994
,
Convective Boiling and Condensation
, 3rd ed.,
Oxford Science Publication, Clarendon Press
,
Oxford
.
4.
Ishii
,
M.
, and
Hibiki
,
T.
,
2011
,
Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
, 2nd ed.,
Springer
,
New York
.
5.
Hossain
,
Md. N.
,
Ghosh
,
K.
, and
Manna
,
N. K.
,
2018
, “
Thermal Modeling of Natural Circulating Riser-Downcomer Circuit for Steam Generation
,”
5th International Conference on Computational Methods for Thermal Problems
,
Bangalore, India
,
July 9–11
, pp.
1
5
.
6.
Hossain
,
Md. N.
,
2015
, “
Thermal Modelling of Boiler Riser-Downcomer Circuit
,”
Master of Mechanical Engineering thesis
,
Jadavpur University
,
Kolkata, India
.
7.
Callizo
,
C. M.
,
2010
, “
Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Single Vertical Channels of Small Diameter
,”
Doctoral thesis
,
Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology
,
Stockholm, Sweden
.
8.
Chen
,
Y.
, and
Chen
,
H.
Dispersed Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer of Flowing Water in Vertical Tubes—CIAE Steady State Data and Prediction Methods
”,
China Institute of Atomic Energy Report No. XA0055010
.
9.
Chen
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Heat Transfer in Film Boiling of Flowing Water, Heat Transfer—Theoretical Analysis
,”
Experimental Investigations and Industrial Systems
,
Publisher In Tech
, pp.
235
260
.
10.
Hossain
,
Md. N.
,
Ghosh
,
K.
, and
Manna
,
N. K.
,
2020
, “
A Multiphase Model for Determination of Minimum Circulation Ratio of Natural Circulation Boiler for a Wide Range of Pressure
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
150
, p.
119293
. 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.119293
11.
Kandlikar
,
S. G.
,
1990
, “
A General Correlation for Saturated Two-Phase Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Inside Horizontal and Vertical Tubes
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
112
(
1
), pp.
119
228
. 10.1115/1.2910348
12.
Gungor
,
K. E.
, and
Winterton
,
R. H. S.
,
1986
, “
A General Correlation for Flow Boiling in Tubes and Annuli
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
29
(
3
), pp.
351
358
. 10.1016/0017-9310(86)90205-X
13.
Kim
,
S. M.
, and
Mudawar
,
I.
,
2013
, “
Universal Approach to Predicting Saturated Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Mini/Micro Channels-Part-II. Two-Phase Heat Transfer Coefficient
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
64
, pp.
1239
1256
. 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.04.014
14.
Kim
,
S. M.
, and
Mudawar
,
I.
,
2013
, “
Universal Approach to Predicting Saturated Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Mini/Micro Channel-Part-I. Dryout Incipience Quality
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
64
, pp.
1226
1238
. 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.04.016
15.
Shah
,
M. M.
, and
Siddiqui
,
M. A.
,
2000
, “
A General Correlation for Heat Transfer During Dispersed-Flow Film Boiling in Tubes
,”
Heat Transfer Eng.
,
21
(
4
), pp.
18
32
. 10.1080/01457630050144479
16.
Groeneveld
,
D. C.
,
Leung
,
L. K. H.
,
Vasic
,
A. Z.
,
Guo
,
Y. J.
, and
Cheng
,
S. C.
,
2003
, “
A Look-Up Table for Fully Developed Film-Boiling Heat Transfer
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
225
(
1
), pp.
83
97
. 10.1016/S0029-5493(03)00149-3
17.
Hammouda
,
N.
,
Groeneveld
,
D. C.
, and
Cheng
,
S. C.
,
1997
, “
Two-Fluid Modeling of Inverted Annular Film Boiling
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
40
(
11
), pp.
2655
2670
. 10.1016/S0017-9310(96)00278-5
18.
Agafonova
,
N. D.
, and
Paramonova
,
I. L.
,
2013
, “
Heat Transfer in Inverted Annular Mode of Steam–Water Flow
,”
Therm. Eng.
,
60
(
3
), pp.
176
181
. 10.1134/S0040601513030014
19.
Benkheira
,
L.
,
Baudouy
,
B.
, and
Souhar
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Heat Transfer Characteristics of Two-Phase He I (4.2K) Thermosyphon Flow
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
50
(
17–18
), pp.
3534
3544
. 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.12.032
20.
Bieliński
,
H.
, and
Mikielewicz
,
J.
,
2010
, “
A Two Phase Thermosyphon Loop With Minichannels Heated From the Vertical Side and Cooled From the Horizontal One
,”
Chem. Process Eng.
,
31
(
4
), pp.
535
551
.
21.
Franco
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Heat Transfer and Flow Pattern in Two-Phase Loops: An Experimental Investigation
,”
5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference
,
Netherlands
,
May 18–22
.
22.
Franco
,
A.
, and
Filippeschi
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Closed Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon of Small Dimensions: A Review of the Experimental Results
,”
Microgravity Sci. Technol.
,
24
(
3
), pp.
165
179
. 10.1007/s12217-011-9281-6
23.
Kim
,
Y. S.
,
Lorente
,
S.
, and
Bejan
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Constructal Steam Generator Architecture
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
52
(
9–10
), pp.
2362
2369
. 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2008.10.021
24.
Pleshanov
,
K. A.
,
Khlyst
,
E. G.
,
Zaichenko
,
M. N.
, and
Sterkhov
,
K. V.
,
2017
, “
Design of a Natural Circulation Circuit for 85 MW Steam Boiler
,”
Therm. Sci.
,
21
(
3
), pp.
1503
1513
. 10.2298/TSCI161005320P
25.
Al-Anizi
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Simple and Clear Approach to Industrial Boiler Circulation Analysis
,”
Heat Transfer Eng.
,
33
(
14
), pp.
1156
1160
. 10.1080/01457632.2012.677680
26.
Ganapathy
,
V.
,
2013
, “
Understanding Boiler Circulation
,”
Chem. Eng. Mag.
,
120
(
10
), pp.
52
58
.
27.
Ganapathy
,
V.
,
1994
,
Steam Plant Calculation Manual
, 2nd ed.,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
.
28.
Tucakovic
,
D. R.
,
Stevanovic
,
V. D.
,
Zivanovic
,
T.
,
Jovovic
,
A.
, and
Ivanovic
,
V. B.
,
2007
, “
Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of a Steam Boiler With Rifled Evaporating Tubes
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
27
(
2–3
), pp.
509
519
. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.06.009
29.
Lo
,
K. L.
,
Song
,
Z. M.
,
Marchand
,
E.
, and
Pinkerton
,
A.
,
1990
, “
Development of a Static-State Estimator for a Power Station Boiler Part-1, Mathematical Model
,”
Electr. Power Syst. Res.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
175
189
. 10.1016/0378-7796(90)90051-4
30.
Wallis
,
G. B.
,
1969
,
One-dimensional Two-Phase Flow
,
McGraw Hill Publication
,
New York
.
31.
Idsinga
,
W.
,
1967
, “
An Assessment of Two-Phase Pressure Drop Correlations for Steam Water System
,”
Naval Architect & Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering thesis
,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
.
32.
Xing
,
D.
,
Yan
,
C.
,
Ma
,
X.
, and
Sun
,
L.
,
2014
, “
Effects of Void Fraction Correlations on Pressure Gradient Separation of Air-Water Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Mini Rectangular Ducts
,”
Prog. Nucl. Energy
,
70
, pp.
84
90
. 10.1016/j.pnucene.2013.08.003
33.
Souza
,
A. L.
,
Chato
,
J. C.
,
Jabardo
,
J. M. S.
,
Wattelet
,
J. P.
,
Panek
,
J.
,
Christoffersen
,
B.
, and
Rhines
,
N.
,
1992
, “
Pressure Drop During Two-Phase Flow of Refrigerants in Horizontal Smooth Tubes
,”
ACRCTR
,
25
, pp.
1
20
.
34.
Ghiaasiaan
,
S. M.
,
2017
,
Two-phase Flow, Boiling and Condensation in Conventional and Miniature Systems
,
Cambridge University Press
,
New York
.
35.
Lockhart
,
R. W.
, and
Martinelli
,
R. C.
,
1949
, “
Proposed Correlations of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase, Two-Component Flow in a Pipe
,”
Chem. Eng. Prog.
,
45
, pp.
39
48
.
36.
Woldesemayat
,
M. A.
, and
Ghajar
,
A. J.
,
2007
, “
Comparison of Void Fraction Correlations for Different Flow Patterns in Horizontal and Upward Inclined Pipes
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
33
(
4
), pp.
347
370
. 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2006.09.004
37.
Groeneveld
,
D. C.
,
Shan
,
J. Q.
,
Vasic
,
A. Z.
,
Leung
,
L. K. H.
,
Durmayaz
,
A.
,
Yang
,
J.
,
Cheng
,
S. C.
, and
Tanase
,
A.
,
2007
, “
The 2006 CHF Look-Up Table
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
237
(
15–17
), pp.
1909
1922
. 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2007.02.014
38.
Tanase
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Improved Methodology for Deriving the Critical Heat Flux Look-up Table
,”
Master thesis
,
University of Ottawa
,
Canada
.
39.
El Nakla
,
M.
,
Habib
,
M.
,
Ahmed
,
W.
,
Al-Sarkhi
,
A.
,
Mansour
,
R. B.
, and
Al-Awwad
,
M. Y.
,
2013
, “
Application of the Critical Heat Flux Look-Up Table to Large Diameter Tubes
,”
Sci. Technol. Nucl. Install.
,
2013
, pp.
1
10
. 10.1155/2013/868163
40.
Tanase
,
A.
,
Cheng
,
S. C.
,
Groeneveld
,
D. C.
, and
Shan
,
J. Q.
,
2009
, “
Diameter Effect on Critical Heat Flux
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
239
(
2
), pp.
289
294
. 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2008.10.008
41.
Groeneveld
,
D. C.
,
Leung
,
L. K. H.
,
Guo
,
Y.
,
Vasic
,
A.
,
El Nakla
,
M.
,
Peng
,
S. W.
,
Yang
,
J.
, and
Cheng
,
S. C.
,
2005
, “
Lookup Tables for Predicting CHF and Film-Boiling Heat Transfer: Past, Present, and Future
,”
Nucl. Technol.
,
152
(
1
), pp.
87
104
. 10.13182/NT152-87
42.
Groeneveld
,
D. C.
,
Shan
,
J. Q.
,
Vasi
,
A. Z.
,
Leung
,
L. K. H.
,
Durmayaz
,
A.
,
Yang
,
J.
,
Cheng
,
S. C.
, and
Tanase
,
A.
,
2005
, “
The 2005 CHF Look-up Table
,”
The 11th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (NURETH-11)
,
Avigon, France
,
Oct. 2–6
, Paper: 166.
43.
Jeong
,
J. J.
,
2017
,
Thermal-Hydraulics of Water Cooled Nuclear Reactors
, F. D'Auria, ed.,
Woodhead Publishing
,
Sawston, Cambridge
, pp.
549
594
.
44.
Relap 5/ Module 3.2
,
1995
, “
Code Manual
”,
Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415
, Vol.
IV
,
1995
.
45.
Ishii
,
M.
, and
Mishima
,
K.
,
1980
, “
Study of Two-Fluid Model and Interfacial Area
”,
NUREG/CR-1873, ANL-80-111
.
46.
Kelessidis
,
V. C.
, and
Dukler
,
A. E.
,
1989
, “
Modeling Flow Pattern Transitions for Upward Gas-Liquid Flow in Vertical Concentric and Eccentric Annuli
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
15
(
2
), pp.
173
191
. 10.1016/0301-9322(89)90069-4
47.
Taitel
,
Y.
,
Bornea
,
D.
, and
Dukler
,
A. E.
,
1980
, “
Modelling Flow Pattern Transitions for Steady Upward Gas-Liquid Flow in Vertical Tubes
,”
AlChE J.
,
26
(
3
), pp.
345
354
. 10.1002/aic.690260304
48.
Mishima
,
K.
, and
Ishii
,
M.
,
1983
, “
Flow-Regime Transition Criteria Consistent With Two-Fluid Model for Vertical Two-Phase Flow
”,
NUREG/CR-3338, ANL-83.2-42
.
49.
Putney
,
J. M.
,
1989
, “
An Assessment of the Annular Flow Transition Criteria and Interphase Friction Models in RELAP5/MOD2
”,
CERL Report No RD/L/3451/R89, PWR/HTWG/A (88)653
.
50.
Cioncolini
,
A.
, and
Thome
,
J. R.
,
2012
, “
Void Fraction Prediction in Annular Two-Phase Flow
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
43
, pp.
72
84
. 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2012.03.003
51.
McQuillan
,
K. W.
, and
Whalley
,
P. D.
,
1985
, “
Flow Patterns in Vertical Two-Phase Flow
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
11
(
2
), pp.
161
175
. 10.1016/0301-9322(85)90043-6
52.
McQuillan
,
K. W.
, and
Whalley
,
P. D.
,
1983
, “
Flow Patterns in Vertical Two-Phase Flow
”,
AERE-R 11032,1983
.
53.
DeJarlais
,
G.
, and
Ishii
,
M.
,
1985
, “
Inverted Annular Flow Experimental Study
”,
NUREG/CR-4277, ANL- 85-31
.
54.
Zambrana
,
J.
,
Leo
,
T. J.
, and
Perez-del-Natario
,
P.
,
2008
, “
Vertical Tube Length Calculation Based on Available Heat Transfer Coefficient Expression for The Subcooled Flow Boiling Region
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
28
(
5–6
), pp.
499
513
. 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.05.003
55.
Lee
,
H. S.
,
2010
,
Thermal Design Heat Sinks, Thermoelectrics, Heat Pipes, Compact Heat Exchangers, and Solar Cells
,
John Wiley &Sons Publishers
,
New York
.
56.
Kakaç
,
S.
,
Bergles
,
A. E.
, and
Fernandes
,
E. O.
,
1988
,
Two Phase Flow Heat Exchanger, Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design
,
Kluwer Academic Publishers
,
Dordrecht, Boston and London
.
57.
Furzer
,
I,A
,
1990
, “
Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers. Maximum Heat Flux and Separation Efficiency
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
29
(
7
), pp.
1396
1404
. 10.1021/ie00103a043
58.
Reisz
,
S.
,
Bonelli
,
A.
, and
Baudouy
,
B.
,
2017
, “
Experimental Research of a Two Phase Nitrogen Natural Circulation Loop
,”
IOP Conference Series, Material Science and Engineering, Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (CEC) 2017
,
Madison, WI
,
July 9–13
, vol.
278
, pp.
1
8
.
59.
Nishikawa
,
K.
,
Yoshida
,
S.
,
Mori
,
H.
, and
Takamatsu
,
H.
,
1986
, “
Post-dry-out Heat Transfer to Freon in Vertical Tube at High Subcritical Pressure
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
29
(
8
), pp.
1245
1251
. 10.1016/0017-9310(86)90157-2
60.
Adam
,
E. J.
, and
Marchetti
,
J. L.
,
1999
, “
Dynamic Simulation of Large Boilers With Natural Recirculation
,”
Comput. Chem. Eng.
,
23
(
8
), pp.
1031
1040
. 10.1016/S0098-1354(99)00269-0
61.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
2015
, “
Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe, ASME B36.10M-2015
”,
Two Park Avenue, New York
.
62.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
2007
, “
Power piping, ASME B.31.1-2007
”,
Two Park Avenue, New York
,
NY 10016-5990
.
63.
Bakker
,
W.
,
Stanko
,
G.
,
Blough
,
J.
,
Seitz
,
W.
, and
Niksa
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Waterwall Corrosion in Pulverized Coal Burning Boilers: Root Causes and Wastage Predictions
,”
Mater. High Temp.
,
24
(
4
), pp.
275
284
. 10.3184/096034007X278356
64.
Bakker
,
W. T.
, and
Kung
,
S. C.
,
2000
, “
Waterwall Corrosion in Coal-Fired Boilers a New Culprit: Fes
,”
NACE International Conference
,
Houston, TX
,
Paper No. 00246
.
65.
Makarov
,
A. N.
,
2018
,
Heat Transfer Model, Methods and Applications
,
Intech Open Publishers
,
London
. 10.5772/intechopen.71737
66.
Yan
,
L.
,
He
,
B.
,
Yao
,
F.
,
Yang
,
R.
,
Pei
,
X.
,
Yang
,
C.
, and
Song
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Numerical Simulation of a 600 MW Utility Boiler With Different Tangential Arrangements of Burners
,”
Energy Fuels
,
26
(
9
), pp.
5491
5502
. 10.1021/ef300929v
67.
Rajaram
,
S.
, and
Abraham
,
K. U.
,
1984
, “
Determination of Boiler Furnace Heat Flux
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
27
(
11
), pp.
2161
2166
. 10.1016/0017-9310(84)90204-7
68.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Li
,
Q.
, and
Zhou
,
H.
,
2016
,
Theory and Calculation of Heat Transfer in Furnaces
,
Elsevier, Academic Press
,
Tsinghua University
.
69.
Teir
,
S.
, and
Kulla
,
A.
,
2002
,
Steam/Water Circulation Design
,
Steam Boiler Technology eBook, Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering
,
Espoo
.
70.
Godridge
,
A. M.
, and
Read
,
A. W.
,
1976
, “
Combustion and Heat Transfer in Large Boiler Furnaces
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
2
(
2
), pp.
83
95
. 10.1016/0360-1285(76)90018-6
71.
Basu
,
P.
,
Kefa
,
C.
, and
Jestin
,
L.
,
2000
,
Boilers and Burners Design and Theory
,
Springer Publications
.
You do not currently have access to this content.