Abstract

A reliable technique is introduced to detect aerodynamic instability of compressors based on wavelet features and hidden Markov model (HMM). A single sensor is sufficient for stall warning if the position of the sensor is carefully selected. The method involves obtaining high-response pressure signal near the rotor tip close to the leading edge. Rotating instabilities band wavelet features are then extracted and trained for the HMM; using data under normal operating conditions, the performance index (PI) is calculated. Unsteady behaviors in prestall processes are discussed and casing wall pressure maps are implemented to explore the mechanism of tip leakage vortex (TLV), which are helpful in explaining the various PI results from different feature selections and probe locations. Experimental results show that the trend indices of PI suitably characterize the compressor aerodynamic instability in subsonic operation.

References

References
1.
Greitzer
,
E. M.
, and
Moore
,
F. K.
,
1986
, “
A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems: Part II—Application
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
108
(
2
), pp.
231
239
. 10.1115/1.3239893
2.
Camp
,
T. R.
, and
Day
,
I. J.
,
1998
, “
1997 Best Paper Award–Turbomachinery Committee: A Study of Spike and Modal Stall Phenomena in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
120
(
3
), pp.
393
401
. 10.1115/1.2841730
3.
Moore
,
F. K.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1986
, “
A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems: Part I—Development of Equations
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
108
(
1
), pp.
68
76
. 10.1115/1.3239887
4.
Pullan
,
G.
,
Young
,
A. M.
,
Day
,
I. J.
,
Greitzer
,
E. M.
, and
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
,
2015
, “
Origins and Structure of Spike-Type Rotating Stall
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
137
(
5
), p.
051007
. 10.1115/1.4028494
5.
Day
,
I. J.
,
2016
, “
Stall, Surge, and 75 Years of Research
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011001
. 10.1115/1.4031473
6.
Pardowitz
,
B.
,
Moreau
,
A.
,
Tapken
,
U.
, and
Enghardt
,
L.
,
2015
, “
Experimental Identification of Rotating Instability of An Axial Fan With Shrouded Rotor
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A: J. Power Energy
,
229
(
5
), pp.
520
528
. 10.1177/0957650915595898
7.
Inoue
,
M.
,
Kuroumaru
,
M.
,
Iwamoto
,
T.
, and
Ando
,
Y.
,
1991
, “
Detection of a Rotating Stall Precursor in Isolated Axial Flow Compressor Rotors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
113
(
2
), pp.
281
287
. 10.1115/1.2929102
8.
Tahara
,
N.
,
Kurosaki
,
M.
,
Ohta
,
Y.
,
Outa
,
E.
,
Nakajima
,
T.
, and
Nakakita
,
T.
,
2007
, “
Early Stall Warning Technique for Axial-Flow Compressors
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
129
(
3
), pp.
448
456
. 10.1115/1.2447948
9.
Christensen
,
D.
,
Cantin
,
P.
,
Gutz
,
D.
,
Szucs
,
P. N.
,
Wadia
,
A. R.
,
Armor
,
J.
,
Dhingra
,
M.
,
Neumeier
,
Y.
, and
Prasad
,
J. V.
,
2008
, “
Development and Demonstration of a Stability Management System for Gas Turbine Engines
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
130
(
3
), p.
031011
. 10.1115/1.2777176
10.
Young
,
A.
,
Day
,
I.
, and
Pullan
,
G.
,
2013
, “
Stall Warning by Blade Pressure Signature Analysis
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
135
(
1
), p.
011033
. 10.1115/1.4006426
11.
Schreiber
,
J.
,
Paoletti
,
B.
, and
Ottavy
,
X.
,
2017
, “
Observations on Rotating Instabilities and Spike Type Stall Inception in a High-Speed Multistage Compressor
,”
Int. J. Rotating Mach.
,
2017
, pp.
7035870
. 10.1155/2017/7035870
12.
Lin
,
F.
,
Chen
,
J.
, and
Li
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Wavelet Analysis of Rotor-Tip Disturbances in An Axial-flow Compressor
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
20
(
2
), pp.
319
334
. 10.2514/1.9257
13.
Rabiner
,
L. R.
,
1989
, “
A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition
,”
Proc. IEEE
,
77
(
2
), pp.
257
286
. 10.1109/5.18626
14.
Vo
,
H. D.
,
2001
, “
Role of Tip Clearance Flow on Axial Compressor Stability
,” Ph.D. thesis,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
,
Cambridge, MA
.
15.
Hoying
,
D. A.
,
Tan
,
C. S.
,
Vo
,
H. D.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
1998
, “
Role of Blade Passage Flow Structures in Axial Compressor Rotating Stall Inception
,”
ASME 1998 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition
,
Stockholm, Sweden
,
June 2–5
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
, p.
V001T01A138
.
16.
Hah
,
C.
,
Bergner
,
J.
, and
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
,
2006
, “
Short Length-Scale Rotating Stall Inception in a Transonic Axial Compressor: Criteria and Mechanisms
,”
ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea, and Air
,
Barcelona, Spain
,
May 8–11
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
, pp.
61
70
.
17.
Du
,
J.
,
Lin
,
F.
,
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Chen
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Numerical Investigation on the Self-Induced Unsteadiness in Tip Leakage Flow for a Transonic Fan Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
132
(
2
), p.
021017
. 10.1115/1.3145103
18.
Yamada
,
K.
,
Kikuta
,
H.
,
Iwakiri
,
K.-I.
,
Furukawa
,
M.
, and
Gunjishima
,
S.
,
2013
, “
An Explanation for Flow Features of Spike-Type Stall Inception in An Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
135
(
2
), p.
021023
. 10.1115/1.4007570
19.
Mathioudakis
,
K.
, and
Breugelmans
,
F.
,
1985
, “
Development of Small Rotating Stall in a Single Stage Axial Compressor
,”
ASME 1985 International Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibit
,
Houston, TX
,
Mar. 18–21
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
, p.
V001T03A064
.
20.
Mailach
,
R.
,
Lehmann
,
I.
, and
Vogeler
,
K.
,
2000
, “
Rotating Instabilities in an Axial Compressor Originating From the Fluctuating Blade Tip Vortex
,”
ASME Turbo Expo 2000: Power for Land, Sea, and Air
,
Munich, Germany
,
May 8–11
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
, p.
V001T03A075
.
21.
Inoue
,
M.
,
Kuroumaru
,
M.
, and
Fukuhara
,
M.
,
1986
, “
Behavior of Tip Leakage Flow Behind An Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
108
(
1
), pp.
7
14
. 10.1115/1.3239889
22.
Inoue
,
M.
, and
Kuroumaru
,
M.
,
1989
, “
Structure of Tip Clearance Flow in An Isolated Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
111
(
3
), pp.
250
256
. 10.1115/1.3262263
23.
Inoue
,
M.
,
Furukawa
,
M.
,
Saiki
,
K.
, and
Yamada
,
K.
,
1998
, “
Physical Explanations of Tip Leakage Flow Field in an Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME 1998 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition
,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
, p.
V001T01A027
.
24.
Daubechies
,
I.
,
1991
,
Ten Lectures on Wavelets (CBMS-NSF Series in Applied Mathematics)
,
SIAM
,
Philadelphia
.
25.
Torrence
,
C.
, and
Compo
,
G. P.
,
1998
, “
A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis
,”
Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.
,
79
(
1
), pp.
61
78
. 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079¡0061:APGTWA¿2.0.CO;2
26.
Bishop
,
C. M.
,
1995
,
Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition
,
Oxford University Press
,
Oxford, UK
.
27.
Baum
,
L. E.
, and
Petrie
,
T.
,
1966
, “
Statistical Inference for Probabilistic Functions of Finite State Markov Chains
,”
Ann. Math. Stat.
,
37
(
6
), pp.
1554
1563
. 10.1214/aoms/1177699147
28.
Rabiner
,
L. R.
, and
Juang
,
B.-H.
,
1999
,
Fundamentals of Speech Recognition
,
Tsinghua University Press
,
Beijing, China
.
29.
Baruah
,
P.
, and
Chinnam
,
R. B.
,
2005
, “
Hmms for Diagnostics and Prognostics in Machining Processes
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
43
(
6
), pp.
1275
1293
. 10.1080/00207540412331327727
30.
Dong
,
M.
, and
He
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Hidden Semi-Markov Model-Based Methodology for Multi-Sensor Equipment Health Diagnosis and Prognosis
,”
Eur. J. Oper. Res.
,
178
(
3
), pp.
858
878
. 10.1016/j.ejor.2006.01.041
31.
Jiang
,
H.
,
Chen
,
J.
, and
Dong
,
G.
,
2016
, “
Hidden Markov Model and Nuisance Attribute Projection Based Bearing Performance Degradation Assessment
,”
Mech. Syst. Sig. Process.
,
72
, pp.
184
205
. 10.1016/j.ymssp.2015.10.003
You do not currently have access to this content.